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of the rebels, and chiefly within a few months, in union with other powers. My royal majesty, by means of the Reis Effendi, gave always, at the fit time, suitable answers; and the last and definite one in the month of Zilchizzé, just passed.

deigned to warn you also, my vi. ziers and agents, and invite you to express sincerely your opinion on this important affair; ordering at the same time that you must be more cautious and attentive than at any other time, to resist, and most prompt to meet every hostile attack that may occur on the part of these pagan powers; so that through the aid of the Most High, and the grace of our prophet, we may be able, as I trust, to defend our incontestible reasons against the injustice of others.

But instead of our reasons having found their fit place and due force and figure, beyond all expectation, in these days, the ministers of the powers of England, France, and Russia, abiding in this, my capital, advanced, in the name of their respective courts, another new declaration, still more absurd, as well as most unjust, in which it is manifestly expressed that they imperiously require the independence and emancipation of the insurgents, our rebel subjects; and that they iniquitously determine, that my royal majesty and (12th Aug. old style,) 1827.

our faithful mussulmans shall aban. don to the infidel Greeks, the property conquered for so many centuries by our ancestors, by arms, and by the shedding of so much blood; and that in case of opposition, they will take means to carry their purpose into execution, without obtaining my consent.

My royal majesty, therefore, having examined the affair pro. foundly and maturely, observing where their purpose tends, deter. mine on what is to be done, and conforming itself to the doctrines of our holy religion, decides to prefer, if it should so happen, to subject by means of arms, its most powerful throne to general and entire ruin, (which God, as all powerful, avert,) than to consent to the absurd and iniquitous propositions of those powers as most fatal.

Hence, my royal majesty has

Hereafter, you shall have particular and detailed instructions on the part of my royal majesty.

Peace and health to all the faithful, and the opposite to the unfaithful.

Given the 2d of the month Safer,

Proclamation of the Greek Govern


Burtzi, (the fort in the harbour of

Napoli,) 21st of Aug. N. S. 1827. The committee of government announces to all Greece-An important and decisive circumstance has now occurred, and the government considers it as its imperative duty to make it known.

The conventions of the 24th of June, (6th July,) concluded at London by the plenipotentiaries of the three powers, England, France, and Russia, and which have been almost every where known, do not allow us to doubt that those great powers have resolved to put an end to our struggle by their powerful and persevering intervention. The Greek nation had already sought this intervention through its representatives in the third na

tional assembly, which met first at Epidaurus, and afterwards at Trægene; and the resolution of the great Christian powers proves that the Greeks did not hope in vain for their interference. Great, howe. ver, as their desire for the termination of the war may be, the Greeks must not forget that their future fate depends in a great measure on themselves-that is to say, on their actions, which, in this decisive moment, must be guided by prudence, and accompanied by ac. tive zeal.

The Greeks are especially in need of perfect union among themselves, to prove to the world that they are unjustly accused of being friends to confusion and anarchy. Their firm resolution to show themselves obedient to the laws, united in one object, the welfare of the country, will make them worthy of the good will of all the Christian powers, and chiefly contribute to the happy result of the powerful intervention.

According to art. 4, of the convention, the three powers will first of all require an armistice. The Greeks certainly cannot oppose what they themselves asked at the time of the assembly at Epidaurus; but they must also reflect, that it depends on themselves, that the armistice shall be honourable and advantageous to them. They must, therefore, redouble their energy, and show greater obedience and readiness than hitherto, that the enemy may not reap advantage at their expense. The committee of government, considering this, will do its utmost to support the expert energy and readiness of the Greeks.

Greeks! The reading of the treaty will convince you what im

portant interests of the Greek nation are now discussed, and how necessary it is that the govern. ment should be in a situation calm. ly to devote a great share of its at tention to the developement of those important interests.


The town of Napoli, though the late troubles have been appeased, is allowed to be the best place for attaining this great object. The agitation still remaining after such great disorders, and the fear of new possible disagreements, would engage almost the whole attention of the government at Napoli. has, therefore, been resolved to remove it to Egina, where it will be able, as before, calmly to attend to the great interests of the nation, and be in a favourable situation to superintend and second the mili tary operations, as they continue. But while the government removes to Egina, it will not forget the necessity of maintaining tranquillity at Napoli, nor neglect the rights and interests of that city, but take the necessary measures before its departure.

Greeks! the more the government feels the importance of present circumstances, the more does it increase its zeal, and activity, and attention, to show itself worthy of your confidence, but the more necessary is it also that you should be ready to support it. It there. fore calls upon you to show sincere concord, perfect obedience, and to act as becomes men who are sensible of the blessings of liberty, and wish to enjoy them. All the representatives of the people who are not present in the senate, must consider that now, more than ever, the legislative body has need of their presence, and the aid of their various know.

ledge; and they must hasten to fulfil the sacred duties which Greece has imposed on them. Every Greek, who by counsel or actions can contribute to the support of the laws and the maintenance of order, is bound to aid the government of the country in this important task. But should any systematically turbulent individuals attempt at the present time to agi. tate the citizens, and thus prepare certain ruin for their country, they may be assured that they will not escape the punishment which their wickedness merits, and the government will employ with energy the measures which circumstances and the laws command.

The government has not only the hope, but the certainty that the mediating powers will also cooperate in enforcing the measures which it may take for the mainte. nance of internal order against such enemies of their country, and doubts not that the efforts of the Greeks, strengthened by their concord and supported by the benevolent sentiments of the powers, will be crowned with a happy


The Committee of Government.




of the three powers having been fruitless, the contracting powers will make use of the means which are in their power to require with energy of the Porte to attend at length to the proposals which have been made to it for the good of humanity, and for the security of the commerce of all nations. Though military operations by sea and by land, says the protocol, may perhaps become necessary to attain this object, every thing will be done in the spirit of the treaty of the 8th of July, and no one of the contracting powers shall have the right, under any pretext, to seek an aggrandizement of territory, or any other advantages whatever. The expenses caused by carrying the measures into execution, shall be subjected to a common estimation, and the nature of the indemnities shall be stipulated.

Protocol of the conference between the Admirals of the allied powers.

The admirals commanding the squadrons of the three powers which signed the treaty of London, having met before Navarino, for the purpose of concerting the means of effecting the object specified in the said treaty, viz. an armistice de facto between the Turks and the

The Secretary of State for the Greeks, have set forth in the present

Interior and Police,

ANASTASIOS LONDO. The Secretary for Foreign Affairs,


Protocol on the question of intervention between the Ministers of Russia, France, and Englund, finally agreed upon in London on the 21st December, 1826.

All the efforts made to induce the Porte to adopt the intervention

protocol the result of their confe


Considering that after the provisional suspension of hostilities, to which Ibrahim Pacha consented in his conference of the 25th of September last, with the English and French admirals, acting likewise in the name of the Russian admiral, the said pacha did, the very next day, violate his engagement by causing his fleet to come out, with a view

to its proceeding to another point in the Morea.

Considering that since the return of that fleet to the Navarino, in consequence of a second requisition addressed to Ibrahim by Admiral Codrington, who had met him near Patras, the troops of this pacha have not ceased carrying on a species of warfare more destructive and exterminating than before, putting women and children to the sword, burning the habitations, tearing up trees by the roots, in order to complete the devastation of the country.

Considering that, with a view of putting a stop to the atrocities which exceed all that has hitherto taken place, the means of persuasion and conciliation, the representations made to the Turkish chiefs, and the advice given to Mehemet Ali and his son, have been treated as mockeries, whilst they might, with one word, have suspended the course of so many barbarities.

Considering that there only remains to the commanders of the allied squadrons the choice between three modes of fulfilling the intentions of their respective courts, namely.

1st. That continuing, throughout the whole of the winter, a blockade, difficult, expensive, and perhaps use. less, since a storm may disperse the squadrons, and afford to Ibrahim the facility of conveying his destroying army to different points of the Morea and the islands.

2dly. The uniting the allied squadron in Navarino itself, and securing by this permanent presence, the inaction of the Ottoman fleets; but which mode alone leads to no termination, since the Porte persists in not changing its system.

3dly. The proceeding to take a

position with the squadrons in Nava. rino, in order to renew to Ibrahim propositions which, entering into the spirit of the treaty, were evidently to the advantage of the Porte itself.

After having taken these three inodes into consideration, we have unanimously agreed, that this third mode may, without effusion of blood, and without hostilities, but simply by the imposing presence of the squadrons, produce a determination leading to the third object.

We have in consequence adopted it, and set it forth in the present protocol. October 18, 1827.

EDWARD CODRINGTON, Vice admiral and commander in chief of his Britannic majesty's ships and vessels in the Mediter


LOUIS, COUNT DE HEIDEN, Rear admiral of his imperial majesty the emperor of all the Russias, Rear admiral H. DE RIGNY, Commanding the squadron of his most Christian majesty,

GENERAL ORDERS. Asia, 24th October, 1827, in the port of Navarino, Before the united squadrons re. move from this theatre, on which they have gained so complete a victory, the vice admiral, comman. der-in-chief, is desirous of making known to the whole of the officers, seamen and marines, employed in them, the high sense which he has of their gallant and steady conduct on the 20th instant. He is persuaded that there is no instance of the fleet of any one country show. ing more complete union of spirit, and of action, than was exhibited by the squadrons of the allied pow. ers together, in this bloody and destructive battle. He attributes to

the bright example set by his gallant colleagues, the rear-admirals, the able and cordial support which the ships of the several squadrons gave to each other during the heat and confusion of the battle. Such union of spirit, and of purpose; such coolness and bravery under fire, and such consequent precision in the use of their guns, insured a victory over the well prepared arrangements of geatly superior numbers, and the whole Turkish and

his most cordial thanks to his noble colleagues, the two rear-admirals, for the able manner in which they directed the movements of their squadrons, and to the captains, commanders, officers, seamen and royal marines, who so faithfully obeyed their orders, and so bravely completed the destruction of their opponents. EDWARD CODRINGTON, Vice-Admiral.

Egyptian fleets have paid the pe- Letter from the Admirals, to the nalty of their treacherous breach of faith.

The boasted Ibrahim Pacha promised not to quit Navarino, or op. pose the allied fleet, and basely broke his word. The allied commanders promised to destroy the Turkish and Egyptian fleets, if a single gun was fired at either of their flags; and, with the assistance of the brave men whom they have had the satisfaction of commanding, they have performed their promise to the very letter. Out of a fleet composed of sixty* men of war, there remained only one frigate and fifteen smaller vessels in a state ever to be again put to sea. Such a victory cannot be gained without a great sacrifice of life;

and the commander-in-chief has to deplore the loss of many of the best and bravest men which the fleet contained. The consolation is, that they died in the service of their country, and in the cause of suffer. ing humanity.

The commander-in-chief returns

*Mons. Bompard, a French officer who retired from the service of Ibrahim Pacha, by direction of admira de Rigny, reports the whole number to be eightyone, including the smaller ones.

Greek Government.

Port of Navarino, the 25th October, 1827. Gentlemen-We learn, with lively feelings of indignation, that, while the ships of the allied powers have destroyed the Turkish fleet, which had refused submitting to an armistice de facto, the Greek cruisers continue to infest the seas; and that the prize court, the only tribunal recognised by the Greek code, seeks by legal forms to justify their excesses.

Your provisional government appear to think, that the chiefs of the allied squadrons are not agreed on the measures to be adopted for putting a stop to this system of lawless plunder. It deceives itself. We here declare to you, with one voice, that we will not suffer your seeking, under false pretexts, to enlarge the theatre of war; that is to say, the circle of piracies.

We will not suffer any expedi. tion, any cruise, any blockade, to be made by the Greeks beyond the limits of from Volo to Lepanto, including Salamina, Egina, Hydra, Spezzia.

We will not suffer the Greeks to incite insurrection at Scio, or in Albania, thereby exposing the po

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