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exclusive privileges. On his own part, his Britannic majesty engages to preserve faithfully and reciprocally, the same principle with regard to the subjects of his imperial majesty. Those articles of Brazilian produce, which the crown has reserved to itself the exclusive right of buying and selling, are not comprehended under this provision, whilst such reservation remains in force.

Art. 27. His imperial majesty has resolved to grant to the subjects of his Britannic majesty the same privilege of credit (assignation) at the custom-houses, enjoyed by those of his Brazilian majesty. On the other hand, it is agreed and stipulated, that the Brazilian traders shall enjoy in the British customhouses, the same favour, as long as the laws allow it to British subjects


Art. 28. The high contracting parties have agreed that the stipulations contained in the present treaty, shall remain in vigour for fifteen years, from the date of the ratification of the present, and after that until one of the two par ties shall announce its revocation to the other, in which case the present treaty shall cease, upon the second year after such annunciation.

Art. 29. The present treaty shall be ratified by the high contracting parties, and the ratifica. tions shall be exchanged, within the space of four months, or less, if possible.

In testimony whereof, we, the undersigned, plenipotentiaries of his majesty the emperor of Brazil, and of his Britannic majesty, in virtue of our plenary powers, have signed the present treaty, and affix ed to it our seals and arms.

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In the name of the most Holy and Indivisible Trinity.

The Senate of the Free and Hanseatic city of Lubeck, the Senate of the Free and Hanseatic city of Bremen, and the Senate o the Free and Hanseatic city o Hamburgh, on one part, each o them separately, and his Majesty the Emperor of Brazil on the othe part, desirous of consolidating the relations of commerce and naviga tion between their respective states, have named to conclude a conven. tion founded on the principles of a fair reciprocity, their Plenipoten. tiaries, namely—

The Senate of the Free and Hanseatic city of Lubeck, the Senate of the Free and Hanseatic city of Bremen, and the Senate of the Free and Hanseatic city of Hamburgh, John Charles Frederick Gildemeister, esq., Doctor of Laws, member of the Senate of Bremen, at present their Envoy Extraordinary to His Majesty the Emperor of Brazil, and Charles Sieveking, esq., Doctor of Laws, Member and Syndic of the Senate of Hamburgh, at present their Envoy Extraordinary to his said Majesty; and his Majesty the Emperor of Brazil, his Excellency the marquis de Queluz, Councillor of State, Senator of the Empire, Grand

Cross of the Imperial Order of Cruziero, Commander of the Imperial order of Christ, Minister and Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs, and his Excellency the Count de Lages, Councillor of State, Officer of the Imperial Order of Cruziero, Commander of the Imperial Order of Saint Benoit D'Avis, decorated with the Cross of Gold of the army of the South, Brigadier of the Imperial and National Army, Minister and Secretary of State for the War Department, and Inspector of the Imperial Military Academy, who, after having reciprocally communicated their full powers, found in good and due form, have agreed on the following articles:

Art. I.-All ports and anchorages in the respective countries, open to the vessels of any other nation, shall be in like manner open to the Brazilian and Hansea tic vessels respectively.

Art. II.-All vessels bearing the flag of one of the republics of Lubeck, Bremen, and Hamburgh, belonging exclusively to a citizen or citizens of one of them, and of which the captain shall in like manner be a citizen of one of those republics, shall be held and considered for all the objects of this convention, as a vessel belonging to Lubeck, Bremen, or Hamburgh. A perfect reciprocity shall be observed in respect to Brazilian ships. Passports, regularly executed, shall establish between the high contracting parties the proofs of the na tionality of the Brazilian and Hanseatic vessels.

Art. III.-Lubeck, Bremen, and Hamburgh vessels which shall enter the Brazilian ports or depart therefrom, and Brazilian vessels which shall enter the ports of the

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Art. V. All merchandise which can be imported into the states of the high contracting parties respectively in national vessels, or which can in like manner be exported therefrom, may also be imported or exported in the vessels of the other contracting party.

The coasting trade from port to port, employed for transporting indigenous or foreign products already admitted for consumption, being nevertheless excepted from this general principle, and reserved. for the regulations of each country, it is agreed by both parties, that the citizens and subjects of the high contracting parties shall enjoy in this respect the privilege of using the coasting vessels for the convey. ance of their merchandise, subject only to the same duties which are now levied, or which may here.

after be levied, on the subjects of the most favoured nation. Art. VI. Any merchandise whatever, without distinction as to origin, exported from the Brazilian ports to the ports of Lubeck, Bremen, and Hamburgh, or from these last-mentioned ports to Brazil, in Brazilian vessels, or in vessels belonging to a nation favoured in the Hanseatic ports in their direct commerce, and any merchandise im. ported from any country whatever into the Hanseatic ports by Brazilian vessels, or exported to any country whatever from the Hanseatic ports by Brazilian vessels, shall not, in the above-mentioned ports, pay the export and import duties, and any other duties, except according to the rates granted to the direct commerce of the most favoured nation.

On the other part, any merchandise whatever, without distinc. tion as to origin, exported from the ports of Lubeck, Bremen, or Hamburgh, to Brazil, or from Brazil to these ports, in Hanseatic vessels or in vessels belonging to any nation favoured in the Brazilian ports in their direct commerce, shall not pay in Brazil the import or export duties, or any duties whatever, but such as are fixed by a rate to the direct and national commerce of the most favoured nation; a rate which by other treaties has been temporarily fixed at fifteen per cent. instead of twenty-four, for all merchandise introduced for consumption.

The Hanseatic cities not having placed any restriction on the indirect commerce of Brazil, and the Brazilian government not being in all respects able, in the present state of their commercial relations, to grant to the indirect commerce

the same latitude and perfect reci procity, it is agreed that the said indirect commerce shall for the present be restricted, and shall only take place with respect to the nations whose direct commerce is or shall be favoured in the Brazilian ports by particular treaties.

All merchandise exported in Hanseatic vessels from the ports of the said nations favoured in Brazil, shall pay the same duties of import and export, or any other duties which are paid by the Hanseatic cities in their direct commerce; these merchandises remaining nevertheless liable to the other formalities required when they are imported into the Brazilian ports by nations favoured in their direct commerce.

All bounties, drawbacks, or other such advantages granted in one of the countries on importation or exportation, in the vessels of any foreign nation whatever, shall in like manner be granted when the importation or exportation shall be performed by the vessels of the other country.

In the direct navigation between the Brazils and the Hanseatic cities, the manifests witnessed by the Consuls, Brazilian or Hanseatic respectively, or if there should not be any consuls by the local authorities, shall be sufficient to admit the respective importations or exportations to the advantages stipu. lated in this article,

Art. VII.-The indigenous ar. ticles referred to in the preceding article shall experience in the respective Custom-houses, as far as regards their valuation, all the advantages and facilities which are or shall be conceded to the most favoured nation. It is understood that in cases where they shall not

have a fixed value in the Brazilian tariff, the entry at the custom house shall be made on a declaration of their value signed by the party who shall have imported them; but in the event of the officers of the customs charged with the collection of the duties sus. pecting the valuation to be faulty, they shall be at liberty to take the goods thus valued on paying ten per cent. above the said valuation; and this within the period of fifteen days from the first day of the detention, and on repaying the duties received there.


Art. VIII. The commerce and navigation between Brazil and the Hanseatic ports shall enjoy in each country, without waiting for any additional convention, all the privi. leges and advantages which are or may be granted to any of the most favoured nations, provided always they fulfil the conditions of reciprocity. It is understood that the privileges which have been, or which may be, granted to the Portuguese nation, shall not be construed into a precedent, nor shall the effects of the present convention extend to Portugal, unless there should be particular treaties for that purpose.

Art. IX.-The consuls of the respective governments shall be treated, as well in respect to their persons as to the exercise of their functions, on the same footing as those of the most favoured na. tions. They shall especially enjoy the right of making representations, as well general as particular, upon the valuations made by the customs, which shall be taken into consideration with as little delay as possible, without detaining the consignments.

Art. X.-Should either of the contracting parties be engaged in war, whilst the other is neuter, it is agreed, that whatever the belli. gerent party may have stipulated with other powers to the advantage of the neutral flag, shall still be in force between Brazil and the Han. seatic towns. In order to prevent all mistakes relating to what is considered contraband of war, it is agreed (without however departing from the general principle above detailed) to restrict this definition to the following articles:-Cannons, mortars, guns, pistols, gre. nades, fusees, gun-carriages, belts, powder, saltpetre, helmets, balls, pikes, swords, halberds, saddles, harness, and all other instruments whatever manufactured for the uses of war.

Art. XI.-The citizens and sub. jects of the respective countries shall enjoy in the other country, in respect to their persons, their proper. ty, the exercise of their religion, and the employment of their industry, all the rights and privileges which are or shall be here. after granted to the most favoured nations.

Some foreigners enjoying in Brazil the privilege of having ac. counts open at the custom-houses for payment of duties, on the same condition and sureties as the Brazilian subjects, this favour shall extend equally to the Hanseatic residents.

Art. XII.-The high contracting parties reserve to themselves the right of entering into any additional stipulations, which the reciprocal interest of trade may require, and any articles which may be hereafter agreed on shall be considered as making a part of the present convention.

Art. XIII.-Although the present convention be considered as common to the three free Hanseatic cities of Lubeck, Bremen, and Hamburgh, it is agreed, nevertheless, that a league of reciprocal responsibility does not exist between their sovereign governments, and that the stipulations of the present convention shall remain in full force with regard to the rest of these republics, notwithstanding a termination on the part of one or more of them.

Art. XIV. The present convention shall be ratified, and the ratifications shall be exchanged in London within the space of four months, or sooner if possible.

It shall be in full force during ten years, dating from the day of the exchange of the ratifications: and beyond that term, until the senates of the Hanseatic cities, whether separately or collectively, or his majesty the Emperor of the Brazils, shall have announced the intention of terminating such convention, as likewise during the negotiation for a renewal or modification of it.

In witness whereof, the under. signed, plenipotentiaries of the Senates of the Hanseatic republics of Lubeck, Bremen, and Hamburgh, and of his majesty the emperor of Brazil, in virtue of their respective full powers, have affixed the seal of their arms.

Done at Rio de Janeiro, this 17th day of November, in the year of our Lord 1827.

(L. s.) GILDEMEISTER. (L. s.) C. SIeveking. (L. s.) Marquez de QUELUZ. (L. s.) Conde de LAGES.

Treaty of Commere and Navigation, between his most Christian Majesty, and the Emperor of Brazil, relative to indemnity to the subjects of France, for the value of French vessels and their cargoes, seized by the Brazilian squadron in the river La Plata, and definitively condemned by the tribunals of Brazil.

Art. 1. The government of Brazil engages to pay to the French government, as an indemnity for the losses done to its subjects, the value of the hulls, rigging, and cargoes of the French vessels le Courrier, le Jules, and le San Sal vador, which have been captured by the squadron in the river La Plata, and definitively condemned by the tribunals of Brazil.

Art. 2. These indemnities shall be arranged upon the basis; as to the vessels, the value of their hulls and rigging to be taken from the policies of insurance, where no suspicion of fraud is raised against the valuation; to which shall be added, the amount of freight, and the extraordinary expenses for the pay and maintenance of the crew, and for all the expenses occasioned by the detention of the vessel; and as to the cargoes, the value shall be regulated by the manifests and invoices, and after the current prices in the port of Rio Janeiro, at the time of cap. ture. The policies of insurance, invoices, vouchers of expenses, and all the other documents, shall be presented and proved in legal form.

Art. 3. To the value of indemnity which shall be liquidated for each vessel, shall be added by way of damages and interest, six per

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