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mutual well-being, and to contribute to their security and good name by every means in their power.

Art. 3. Neither of the contract. ing parties will permit the passage through their territory, nor lend aid of any kind, to the enemies of the other; but, on the contrary, will employ their good offices, and even their mediation, if necessary, for the re-establishment of peace whenever hostilities may break out with one or more powers, not permitting in the meanwhile an entrance in the ports of either republic to the privateers and prizes which the said enemies may make from the citizens of Colombia and Peru.

Art. 4. The military forces in the department of the south of Colombia and in those of the north of Peru, shall be reduced, upon the ratification of the present treaty, to the footing of peace, so that, hereafter, it shall not be permitted to maintain in them more than the garrisons and bodies necessary and indispensable to preserve the country in security and quiet. All the prisoners taken during the present war who are now in the power of the authorities of either of the two republics, shall be sent back en masse to their respective countries, without the necessity of exchange or ransom.

Art. 5. Both parties recognise as the limits of their respective territories the same that the an cient vice-royalities, New-Grenada and Peru, had before their independence, with the sole variations that they may think proper to agree upon between themselves, to affect which they bind themselves from this time reciprocally to make such cessions of smaller territories as

may contribute to fix the dividing line in a manner more natural, exact and proper for avoiding com. petition and difference between the inhabitants and authorities of the frontiers.

Art. 6. In order to obtain this last result as briefly as possible, it has been agreed, and is here expressly agreed, that a commission composed of two individuals from each republic shall be appointed by both governments, which shall examine, rectify and fix the dividing line conformably to the stipulation in the previous article. This commission shall place, with the consent of its respective governments, each one in possession of the parts belonging to it, in proportion as it marks out and recognises the said line, commencing from the River Tumbes in the Pacific ocean.

Art. 7. It is also stipulated between the contracting parties, that the commission of limits shall commence its labours forty days after the ratification of the present treaty, and shall terminate them in six months afterward. If the members of said commission shall disagree in one or more points in the course of their operations, they shall give to their respective go. vernments a circumstantial account of every thing, in order that, taking it into consideration, they may resolve amicably upon what may be most advantageous, in the mean time, continuing their labours until their conclusion, without interruption.

Art. 8. It has been agreed, and is here expressly agreed, that the inhabitants of the small territories who, by virtue of the fifth article, are mutually to yield the parts agreed on, shall enjoy the prerogatives, privileges, and exemp

tions which the other inhabitants of the country in which they may definitely fix their residence have or may enjoy.

Those who declare before the local authorities their intention of becoming citizens either of Colombia or Peru, shall have a year, in order to dispose, as may seem best to them, of all their moveable and immoveable goods, and to transport themselves with their families and property to the country of their choice, free from every obligation and charge whatsoever, without undergoing the least trouble or vexation whatever.

Art. 9. The navigation and commerce of the rivers and lakes which flow or may flow through the frontiers of either republic, shall be entirely free to the citizens of both, without any distinction; and under no pretext shall there be imposed upon them incumbrances or impediments of any kind in their dealings, exchanges, and recipro. cal sales of those articles which may belong to lawful and free commerce, and which consist of the natural products of their respective countries, subject only to the duties, charges or emoluments

to which the natives or denizens of each of the contracting parties were subject..

Art. 10. It is also stipulated, that a commission, composed of two citizens on each side, shall liquidate, in the city of Lima, within the time designated in the 7th article, on the subject of boundaries, the debt, which the republic of Peru contracted with that of Co. lombia for the assistance lent du. ring the late war against the com. mon enemy. In case of the disa. greement of the members, either on part of Colombia or Peru, up. on one or more parts of the accounts of which they may have cognizance, they shall make to their respective governments an explanation of the motives on which their disagreement was founded, in order that the said go. vernments may amicably deter. mine what is just, without a cessation, however, on the part of the commission, of continuing the examination and liquidation of the other parts of the debts, until it is completely ascertained and satisfied.



Art. 1. In the space of fifteen days from the ratification of this treaty by the commanders-in-chief of the belligerent armies, all persons who are in the army of the Bolivian republic, and who are Colombians or foreigners, shall begin to depart from the territory of the republic.

Art. 2. There shall be excepted from the operation of the preceding article, subalterns below the grade of captain, inclusive, who may remain in the republic, renouncing the military service, but the president of the republic may, after he shall be elected, recall them to the army.

Art. 3. All other officers, who shall, by virtue of the first article, be compelled to quit the republic, may return after the national as. sembly shall be installed; and du. ring their absence they shall receive half-pay from the public treasury, until the president decides whether they shall or not continue in the military service and receive full pay. The persons comprehended in the second article shall also enjoy half-pay, subject to the same conditions.

Art. 4. The squadrons of Colombian grenadiers and hussars, who are in Bolivia, shall commence their homeward route by the route which shall be designated, as far as Arica; the commander-in-chief of the Peruvian army shall furnish them with transports, the republic of Bolivia assuming to pay the expenses resulting therefrom.

Art. 5. The day after the ratification of the treaty, the commander-in-chief of the Bolivian army shall issue a decree, convoking for the first of August, the constitutional congress, which is now adjourned, and which shall re-assemble in the city of Chuquisaca, for the purpose, 1st, of receiving and accepting the resigna. tion of the president of the republic, the grand marshal of Ayacu cho, Antonia Jose de Sucre; 2d, to name a provisional government; 3d, to convoke, with all possible speed, a national assembly, to revise, modify or maintain the existing constitution.

Art. 6. This national assembly shall name and elect a president of the republic, and shall designate the day when the Peruvian army shall begin to evacuate the territory of the republic.

Art. 7. The Peruvian army shall

occupy the department of Potosi until the meeting of the constitutional congress, and then it shall commence its march towards Paz and Oreoco by the department of Cochabamba. It shall receive all the necessary articles of subsist ence on the way.

Art. 8. The national assembly, after having carried into effect the sixth article, shall suspend its sittings, to resume them after the Peruvian army shall have passed the Desaguadero.

Art. 9. The Bolivian army shall occupy the department of Chuquisaca, Cochabamba, Santa Cruz, and Tarija, as well as that of Potosi, the day after they shall be evacuated by the Peruvian army. The revenues of the latter department, so long as it shall be occupied by the Peruvian army and those of Oreoco and De Paz, while it remains within the Bolivian territory, shall be appropriated to its use, after deducting the charges of collection.

Art. 10. The governments of the two republics shall agree be. tween themselves as to the reclamations that they may reciprocally make, after the Peruvian army shall have passed the Desaguadero.

Art. 11. The two republics shall resume their mutual relations by means of their diplomatic agents, after the Peruvian army shall have evacuated the Bolivian territory.

Art. 12. Neither of the two re. publics shall contract any relations with the empire of Brazil, until it shall conclude a peace with the Argentine republic.

Art. 13. All persons belonging to either republic who are in the armies of the other, shall be imme. diately dismissed, it being express

ly understood that the Bolivians may remain in their own country, and that the Peruvians may return to theirs, leaving them at full liberty so to do. Colombian soldiers in the two armies are comprized in this article, and neither party shall be at liberty to reclaim deserters.

Art. 14. No Bolivians shall be accountable to the law, nor responsible, directly nor indirectly, for having expressed their opinions under existing circumstances, and those who are in that predicament, shall be treated and regarded ac. cording to their talents and services.

Art. 15. The contracting parties shall be responsible for all hostile acts, which may take place in

either army, after the ratification of this treaty.

Art .16. Two officers, who shall be designated by the contracting generals, shall be given as hostages for the fulfilment of this treaty.

Art. 17. This treaty shall be ratified or rejected within twentyfour hours, and in case it shall be disapproved or not ratified, hostilities shall re-commence in twelve hours.

Signed in duplicate.





Art. 1. At the expiration of three years, to be reckoned from the exchange of the ratifications of the present treaty, it shall not be lawful for the subjects of the emperor of Brazil to be concerned in the carrying on of the African slave-trade, under any pretext or in any manner whatever, and the carrying on of such trade after that period, by any person, subject of his imperial majesty, shall be deemed and treated as piracy.

Art. 2. His majesty the king of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, and his ma. jesty the emperor of Brazil, deeming it necessary to declare the engagements by which they hold

themselves bound to provide for the regulation of the said trade, till the time of its final abolition, they hereby mutually agree to adopt and renew, as effectually as if the same were inserted, word for word, in this convention, the several articles and provisions of the treaties concluded between his Britannic majesty and the king of Portugal on this subject, on the 22d of January, 1815, and on the 28th of July, 1817, and the several explanatory articles which have been added thereto.

Art. 3. The high contracting parties further agree, that all the matters and things contained in those treaties, together with the

instructions and regulations, and forms of instruments annexed to the treaty of the 28th of July, 1817, shall be applied, mutatis mutandis, to the said high contracting parties and their subjects, as effectually as if they were recited word for word herein; confirming and approving hereby all matters and things done by their respective subjects under the said treaties, and in execution thereof.

Art. 4. For the execution of the purposes of this convention, the high contracting parties further agree to appoint forthwith mixed commissions, after the form of those already established on the part of his Britannic majesty and the king of Portugal, under the convention of the 28th of July, 1817.

Art. 5. The present convention shall be ratified, and the ratifications shall be exchanged at London within four months from the date hereof, or sooner if possible.

In witness whereof, the respective plenipotentiaries have signed the same, and have affixed thereto the seals of their arms.

Done at Rio de Janeiro, the 23d day of November, in the year of our Lord 1826. [L.S.] ROBERT Gordon. [L.S.] Marquez de S. AMARO. [L.S.] Marquez de INHAMBUpe.

Treaty of Commerce and Navigation between his Britannic Majes. ty, and his Majesty the Emperor of Brazil.

Rio Janeiro, August 17th, 1827. In the name of the Holy and Indivisible Trinity, &c. &c.

Art. 1. There shall be peace and friendship for ever, between his majesty the emperor of Brazil, and his majesty the king of

the united kingdoms of Great Bri tain and Ireland, their heirs and sucessors, their subjects, states, and countries, without distinction of person or of place.

Art. 2. His imperial majesty, and his Britannic majesty, have agreed, that each of the high contracting parties shall have the right of naming, and placing consuls-general, consuls, and viceconsuls in all or any of the ports of the other, as may be judged necessary for the commercial interests and advantage of its subjects. The consuls of each class cannot enter upon their functions, unless named by their respective monarchs, with all the requisite formalities, and confirmed by the monarch upon whose territory they are placed. The most perfect equality is to exist between the consuls of each class throughout the territory of each of the high contracting parties. The consuls shall enjoy the privileges attached to their rank, as generally recognised and granted. In all civil and criminal affairs, they are to submit like the rest of their fellow-countrymen, to the laws of the land in which they reside, and to enjoy the entire protection of those laws during their observance of them.

Art. 3. The consuls, and viceconsuls of the two nations shall, each in his respective residence, take cognizance and decide upon the differences which may arise between the subjects, the captains, and crews, of the vessels of their respective nations, without the intervention of the authorities of the countries, unless the public tranquillity demand it, or unless the parties themselves carry the affair before the tribunals of the territory, in which the difference arises. In

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