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the waters of Red river can be taken to the Gulf from this point in an almost direct course, through channels that it is more than proba. ble they formerly occupied, and in a distance of less than one half of that by which they reached the ocean through the channel of the Mississippi, and by forty or fifty miles less than that through the channels of the Chafalaya. A deep cut at this point, of ten miles, through an alluvial soil, would discharge the waters of Red river in Bayou Boeuf; and as these waters would pass through an alluvial plain having probably a fall of not less than sixty feet in seventy miles from the point of tapping, there is reason to believe that they would work for themselves, without much artificial aid, a channel of great capacity.
The question then arises, how are these waters, in addition to the superabundant waters of the Chafalaya, which already overflow all the valley of the lake of Attakapas, to be taken off to the gulf? To solve this question satisfactorily, it will be necessary to take a view of the outlets of the lake of Attakapas. The Teche is a natural canal, almost without feeders or outlets, except at its mouth, and having no doubt been a channel for a much larger mass of water in time past, its adjacent lands have been formed precisely as those of the Mississippi have been, and its banks of course occupy the highest elevation of the country through which it runs. For forty miles above its mouth it is contracted by the waters of the Attakapas lake on the one side, and by those of the gulf on the other, so as to exhibit almost literally a mere tongue of land just above high water mark.
It enters Berwick's bay about eighteen miles from the Gulf. Nearly opposite to the mouth of the Teche is the mouth of Bayou Black, or Bayou Bœuf. This bayou, like the Teche, is also a natural canal, occupying the highest elevation of a narrow tract of land, extending eastwardly nearly to the Bayou Lafourche, that is seldom inun. dated, and which would seem to be a prolongation of the Attakapas country; inducing a belief that the Teche formerly discharged its waters at a point farther east, into a bay that occupied the whole of the present plain, from the Attakapas lake to Bayou Lafourche and the Mississippi. It is this elevated ridge that causes the indentation in the lower plain to be deluged by the waters of the Mississippi, which, forcing a passage for themselves across the Teche, have formed an outlet called Berwick's bay. This path is narrow, and is about seven or eight feet deep, passing in part of its course through lands not of recent alluvion, and disembogues into the bay of Achafolia, through the lake of that name, and two or three other outlets.
Following up, then, this indication of nature, by cutting artificial outlets from the lake of Attakapas across the Teche, at different points, for a distance of fifteen or twenty miles above its mouth, at such places as the drains emptying into the ocean may approach nearest to Attakapas lake, giving to such cuts any width that may be required, and a depth that may be on a level with low water mark, and embanking the lake of Attakapas so as to raise it three feet above its present surface, it is believed that a capacity may be obtained for taking off any volume of water that
it may be necessary to throw into the lake of Attakapas, and at an expense very trifling in comparison to the object to be obtained.. All the waters of the Atchafalaya being thrown into lake Attakapas, and that lake embanked, the whole of the plain between it and the Mississippi would be exempt from inundation. The rain water, and that from the weepings and crevices in the embankments, would find a reservoir in the deepest lakes and beds of Grand river, the surplus being taken off by machinery, or by tide locks in some of the bayous, which now connect with these lakes in the highest floods.
It is believed that three brigades of the topographical corps, operating for a few seasons from the 1st of November to the 1st of July, would be able to obtain sufficient data to decide upon the practicability of devising, and the expense of accomplishing, a plan that would effect the reclamation of both plains: but if it should be found to be impracticable, or too expensive for the state of the population and wealth of the country, yet the
minute knowledge which they would obtain of the topography of the entire plain, would enable them to designate different portions of it in both plains which could be reclaimed from inundation at an expense commensurate with the present capital and population of the country.
The gradual elevation of the plain of the Mississippi,* by the annual deposites, and the accumulation of population and capital, will ultimately accomplish its entire reclamation from the inundations of the Mississippi; but the interposition of the government and the judicious expenditure of a few millions of dollars would accomplish that object fifty or perhaps a hundred years sooner than it will be effected by individual capital, aided by the slow operations of nature.
I attach a small diagram of the country, as illustrative of some of the points referred to in this report.
* The gradual elevation of the plain is not perceptible, because the gradual elevation of the beds of the water courses, arising from the same cause, occasions as general an overflow of their banks as formerly; but that which is perceptible is the rapid filling up of the ponds and shallow lakes; and there can be no question that the great annual alluvion and vegetable deposite must produce similar effects through the whole plain.
The Mississippi river is among the muddiest in the world, and deposites its muddy particles with great rapidity; its waters hold in solution not less than one sixteenth part of their bulk of alluvion matter, and some experiments are stated to give a greater proportion. If then, within the embankments of the Mississippi, a piece of level ground be surrounded by a dike sixteen inches high, and filled by the waters of the Mississippi when above its banks, and those waters drawn off when they have deposited all their muddy particles, nearly one inch in depth of alluvion matter will have been obtained; if this process be repeated as often as practicable during a season of high waters, a quantity of alluvion will have been accumulated of not less than six or eight inches in depth. This process is similar to that termed warping in England, and is in use to some extent along the waters of the estuary of the Humber for manuring lands; and it is a process by which the lands of the plain of Louisiana will be rendered inexhaustible, so long as the Mississippi continues to bear its muddy waters to the ocean.
An estimate of the expense of excavating Outlets from the Lake of the Attakapas to the Gulf of Mexico.
On the presumption that the waters of the gulf of Mexico, at low tide, reach within six miles of the lake—and it is believed that they do, at several points, between the Bayou Cypress and Berwick's bay -let positions at one or more of the most favourable of these points be selected, the aggregate width of which shall be two thousand yards; let such portions of these positions as may be inundated at high water, be drained by common embankments, so that oxen may be used in removing the earth; let excavations be made through them of such widths as may be best adapted to the removal of the earth, leaving, however, the proportion of excavation to that of embankment as three to one. A number of canals will then be formed, with an embank. ment between each, the excavation of which, their beds being on a level with low water, would not average a depth of three feet. These proportions will give the amount of excavation as equal to 15,840,000 cubic yards, which, at 20 cents the cubic yard, gives $3,168,000 as the expense of excavating outlets, which, at low tide, would have the capacity of dis
In the name of the Most Holy and Invisible Trinity.
charging from the lake, with great velocity, a column of water of fif teen yards in width and one yard in depth, at the point where it left the lake.
The United States of America and His Majesty the King of Sweden and Norway, equally animated with the desire of extending and conso.
No estimate, with any tolerable approximation to accuracy, can be made of the expense of excavating a deep cut from Red river to the Bayou Boeuf, and of enlarging the bed of that bayou; of the embankments along the Attakapas, necessary to give it the required elevation; or for tide locks, machinery, &c. until an accurate survey on the ground made. It is possible that the judicious expenditure of five million dollars, by the government, would be sufficient to make the excavations, and erect embankments, tide locks, and other machinery, that would be necessary to give such a control over the waters of the Mississippi, and its outlets, as to reduce them so nearly within their banks at high floods as to enable individual capital to progress with the entire embankment of them, and the reclamation of the whole plain.
A Treaty of Commerce and Navigation, between the United States of America and His Majesty the King of Sweden and Norway.
The quantity of land belonging to the government within the limits of the alluvial plain may be estimated at three millions of acres, which, at a minimum price of ten dollars per acre, would be upwards of thirty millions of dollars.
lidating the commercial relations subsisting between their respective territories, and convinced that this object cannot better be accomplished than by placing them on the basis of a perfect equality and re
ciprocity, have, in consequence, agreed to enter into negotiation for a new Treaty of Commerce and Navigation; and, to this effect, have appointed Plemipotentiaries, to wit; The President of the United States of America, John James Appleton, Chargé d'Affaires of the said States at the Court of His Majesty, the King of Sweden and Norway: and His Majesty the King of Sweden and Norway, the Sieur Gustave Count de Wetterstedt, his Minister of State and of Foreign Affairs, Knight Commander of his orders, Knight of the Orders of St. Andrew, St. Alexander Newsky, and St. Ann, of the first class, of Russia; Knight of the Order of the Red Eagle, of the first class, of Prussia; Grand Cross of the Order of Leopold, of Austria; one of the Eighteen of the Swedish Academy; who, after having exchanged their full powers, found in good and due form, have agreed upon the following articles:
The citizens and subjects of each of the two high contracting parties may, with all security for their persons, vessels, and cargoes, freely enter the ports, places, and rivers, of the territories of the other, wherever foreign commerce is permitted. They shall be at liberty to sojourn and reside in all parts whatsoever of said territories; to rent and occupy houses and warehouses for their commerce; and they shall enjoy, generally, the most entire security and protection in their mercantile transactions, on condition of their submitting to the laws and or. dinances of the respective countries.
Swedish and Norwegian vessels, and those of the island of St. Bartholomew, arriving either laden or
in ballast, into the ports of the United States of America, from whatever place they may come, shall be treated on their entrance, during their stay, and at their departure, upon the same footing as national vessels coming from the same place, with respect to the duties of tonnage, light houses, pilotage, and port charges, as well as to the perquisites of public officers, and all other duties or charges of whatever kind or denomination, levied in the name or to the profit, of the government, the local authorities, or of any private establishment whatsoever.
And reciprocally, the vessels of the United States of America, arriving, either laden, or in ballast, in the ports of the kingdom of Sweden and Norway, from whatever place they may come, shall be treated on their entrance, during their stay, and at their departure, upon the same footing as national vessels coming from the same place, with respect to the duties of tonnage, light houses pilotage, and port charges, as well. as to the perquisites of public officers, and all other duties or charges, of whatever kind or denomination, levied in the name, or to the profit of the government, the local authorities, or of any private establishment whatsoever.
All that may be lawfully imported into the United States of America, in vessels of the said states, may also be thereinto imported in Swedish and Norwegian vessels, and in those of the island of St. Bartholomew, from whatever place they may come, without paying other or higher duties, or charges, of whatever kind or denomination, levied in the name, or to the profit, of the government, the local au
thorities, or of any private establishments whatsoever, than if imported in national vessels.
And reciprocally, all that may be lawfully imported into the king. doms of Sweden and Norway, in Swedish and Norwegian vessels, or in those of the island of St. tholomew, may also be thereinto imported in vessels of the United States of America, from whatever place they may come, without pay. ing other or higher duties, or charges, of whatever kind or denomination, levied in the name, or to the profit, of the government, the local authorities, or of any private establishments whatsoever, than if imported in national vessels.
The stipulations contained in the three preceding articles, are, to their full extent, applicable to the vessels of the United States of Ame rica, proceeding, either laden, or not laden, to the colony of St. BarBartholomew, in the West Indies, whether from the ports of the kingdoms of Sweden and Norway, or from any other place whatsoever; or proceeding from said colony, either laden or not laden, whether bound for Sweden or Norway, or for any other place whatsoever.
It is expressly understood, that the foregoing second, third, and fourth articles, are not applicable to the coastwise navigation from one port of the United States of America, to another port of the said states; nor to the navigation from one port of the kingdoms of Sweden or of Norway to another, nor to that between the two latter countries; which navigation each of the two high contracting parties reserves to itself.
All that may be lawfully exported from the United States of Ame. rica in vessels of the said states, may also be exported therefrom in Swedish and Norwegian vessels, or in those of the island of St. Bartholomew, without paying other or higher duties, or charges, of whatever kind or denomination, levied in the name, or to the profit, of the government, the local authorities, or of any private establishments whatsoever, than if exported in national vessels.
And reciprocally, all that may be lawfully exported from the kingdoms of Sweden and Norway, in Swedish and Norwegian vessels, or in those of the island of St. Bartholomew, may also be exported therefrom in vessels of the United States of America, without paying other or higher duties, or charges, of whatever kind or denomination, levied in the name, or to the profit, of the government, the local authorities, or of any private establishments whatsoever, than if exported in national vessels.
Each of the two high contracting parties engages not to grant, in its purchases, or in those which might be made by companies or agents, acting in its name, or under its authority, any preference to impor tations made in its own vessels, or in those of a third power, over those made in the vessels of the other contracting party.
The two high contracting parties engage not to impose upon the navigation between their respective territories, in the vessels of either, any tonnage or other duties of any kind or denomination, which shall be higher, or other than those which shall be imposed on every