Managing a Sea: The Ecological Economics of the Baltic

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Taylor & Francis, 2017 - 150 pages
Cover -- Half Title -- Title -- Copyright -- Contents -- List of Figures and Tables -- About the Contributors -- Acronyms and Abbreviations -- 1 Introduction -- Causes of Baltic Sea ecological degradation -- Management and policy evaluation -- Structure of the book -- Part I: Land Use and Nutrient Loads -- 2 Land Use, Population and Nutrient Loads -- Land use and population in the drainage basin -- Nutrient loads to the Baltic Sea -- 3 Wetlands as Nutrient Sinks -- Wetland distribution within the Baltic Sea drainage basin -- Estimating nitrogen retention by wetlands in the Baltic Sea drainage basin -- Previous studies of wetlands as nitrogen sinks -- Calculating load and retention -- The retention results in context -- The wetland footprint of Baltic cities -- Summary of major results -- Part II: Economic and Ecological Evaluation -- 4 Cost-effective Nutrient Reductions to the Baltic Sea -- Marginal costs of nutrient reduction measures -- Minimum costs of nutrient reductions -- Allocation of cost-effective measures -- Sensitivity analysis -- Conclusions -- 5 Impacts of Changed Nutrient Loads on the Baltic Sea -- Limiting nutrient -- Basin-wide impacts of changes in nutrient loads -- Dynamics of nutrient load reductions by 50 per cent -- Nutrient concentration ratios and reductions in the load of nitrogen -- Nutrient concentration ratios and reductions in the load of phosphorus -- Concentration ratios and reductions in both nitrogen and phosphorus -- Regional scale - Gulf of Riga -- Conclusions -- 6 The Benefits of a Less Eutrophicated Baltic Sea -- Judgements and the quantification of environmental benefits -- Contingent valuation of the Baltic Sea -- Sweden -- Lithuania and Poland -- Basin-wide benefits -- Conclusions -- Part III: Institutions and Policies -- 7 Policy instruments and Cost Sharing of Baltic Sea Cleaning Programmes

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