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(2) Urban areas of more than 50,000 population identified between decennial census periods: These areas are identified subsequent to a decennial census as a result of a finding, by the U.S. Bureau of the Census based on a special census, or an evaluation of newly annexed areas, that the population of a city or urban area is now in excess of 50,000 population. Other official findings may come from the U.,S. Bureau of the Budget in the nature of additions to their list of Standard Metropolitan Statistical Areas.

b. Boundaries

"It is declared to be in the national interest to encourage and promote the development of transportation systems embracing various modes of transport in a manner that will serve the States and local communities efficiently and effectively. To accomplish this objective the Secretary shall cooperate with the States, as authorized in this title, in the development of long-range highway plans and programs which are properly coordinated with plans for improvements in other affected forms of transportation and which are formulated with due consideration to their probable effect on the future development of urban areas of more than fifty thousand population. After July 1, 1965, the Secretary shall not approve under Section 105 of this title any program for projects in any urban area of more than fifty thousand population unless he finds that such projects are based on a continuing comprehensive transportation planning process carried on cooperatively by States and local communities in conformance with the objectives stated in

(1) Urbanized Area boundaries: The boundaries of the urbanized areas established by the U.S. Bureau of the Census shall be controlling in determining the eligibility for approval of Federal-aid projects in programs, unless other limits for this purpose shall be agreed upon by the U.S. Bureau of Public Roads and the States. Since urbanized area boundaries are only established by the U.S. Bureau of the Census at the time of the decennial census, the municipal boundaries will be controlling in determining the eligibility for approval of any program of Federal-aid projects until such time as urbanized area boundaries are officially established, unless other limits for this purpose shall be agreed upon by the U.S. Bureau of Public Roads and the States. In the event that a city, included within an established urbanized area extends its bound

November 24, 1969

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the urbanized area, the area included in the expanded municipal boundaries will also be subject to the provision of Section 134.

(2) Comprehensive planning area boundaries: The boundaries of the urbanized area established by the U.S. Bureau of Census or in Section 3b(1) above should not, however, necessarily restrict the area to be encompassed in a comprehensive transportation planning process. For planning purposes all of the area likely to be urbanized within the forecast period, usually 20 years, should be included. In those instances where urbanized areas as defined by the U.S. Bureau of the Census are adjoining or are likely to become adjoining in the forecast perio the planning process should embrace the entire area. Except in unusual circumstances the planning area shall not be less than the urbanized area delimited by the U.S. Bureau of the Census.

urban development and future travel demands.
It includes not only the initial preparation and
evaluation of a transportation plan through an
appraisal of practicable alternatives, but also
periodic review and modification to meet chang-
ing conditions. In addition, it includes the
preparation and dissemination of pertinent infor-
mation needed by official agencies in their con-
sideration of planning proposals and improvement
programs, and for the encouragement of public
understanding and support; and, the preparation
of recommendations concerning scheduling and
financing of highway improvements, coordination
with other urban development programs, revision
of ordinances and regulations, and additional
legislation, if necessary.

(3) The planning process should be
closely coordinated with policy making and program
administration and should be organized with the
objectives of achieving agreement on interrelated
action programs founded on factual information.

(3) Boundary restrictions: The

(4) Basic elements for which invenboundaries of urbanized areas as defined tories and analyses are required are as follows: herein either for planning purposes or for determining eligibility of proposed Federal

(a) Economic factors affecting aid highway projects are not necessarily

development coincidental with urban area boundaries

(b) Population defined in Policy and Procedure Memorandum

(c) Land use 10-5, and the revisions thereto.

(d) Transportation facilities in

cluding those for mass transportation 4. DEFINITION

(e) Travel patterns

(f) Terminal and transfer facilities The following definitions and interpre

(g) Traffic control features tations will apply to the planning process:

(h) Zoning ordinances, subdivision

regulations, building codes, etc. a. Transportation planning process:

(i) Financial resources

(j) Social and community-value factors (1) The planning process includes the operational procedures and working

(5) The scope of the inventories and the arrangements by which short and long-range extent to which the various analyses need to be highway and transportation plans are soundly

carried will, of course, vary depending upon such conceived and developed, and continuously

factors as city size, age, and growth potential. evaluated in a manner that will:

b. Comprehensive - The comprehensive (a) Assist governing bodies and

character of the planning process requires that official agencies in determining courses of the economic, population, and land use elements action and in formulating attainable capital

be included; that estimates be made of the future improvement programs in anticipation of

demands for all modes of transportation both pubcommunity needs.

lic and private for both persons and goods; that

terminal and transfer facilities and traffic control (b) Guide private individuals systems be included in the inventories and analyses; and groups in their planning decisions which and, that the entire area, within which the forces can be important factors in the pattern of

of development are interrelated and which is exfuture development and redevelopment.

pected to be urbanized within the forecast period,

be included. (2) Transportation planning is concerned with all facilities used for the move

c. Continuing - The maintaining of current ment of persons and goods, including termi

valid data on land use, travel and transportation nal facilities and traffic control systems.

and related facilities by staff at State or local The process is based on the collection, analy-level to provide for updating and re-evaluating the sis, and interpretation of pertinent data

transportation plan as conditions change from concerning existing conditions and historical those initially analyzed and forecasted. Maingrowth; the establishment of community goals

tenance of data can range from full time day-toand objectives; and the forecasting of future day operations for the large urban areas to part

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June 21, 1967

time or intermittent operations for the smaller process. This would insure full consideration urban areas. Either type of operation should of all pertinent factors and contribute to the insure that land use changes differing from resolution of any differences of opinion during those forecasted are recorded in a manner the process of developing proposals for improvethat will permit a ready evaluation of their ments. However, individual, direct participation significance with respect to the transportation by all jurisdictions will generally not be practical plan. Similarly, as each portion of a trans- in the large urban areas, and in such cases it portation plan is placed in operation an

may be necessary for the smaller jurisdictions evaluation of its effectiveness should be made. to be represented by the larger or more inTravel habits should be reappraised and

clusive ones. Many small incorporated places transportation plans updated whenever the included in large urbanized areas do not have departures from the land use forecast are authority to exercise land use controls or to significant or the effectiveness of new facilities construct transportation improvements, and differs materially from that anticipated. In their participation need not necessarily be solicited. any event, transportation plans should be reevaluated and updated when necessary, but not

(4) Each urbanized area has State and less frequently than every five years.

local legislation pertaining to authorities and

responsibilities of local political subdivisions d. Cooperatively

which make it impractical to establish uniform

criteria for determining the specific political (1) The establishment of a formal subdivisions with which a memorandum of underprocedure - supported by a written memo- standing is required. It will be the responsibility randum of understanding - between the State of the regional Federal Highway Administrator highway departments and the governing bodies to make this determination for each urbanized of the local communities for carrying out the area within his region. transportation planning process in a manner that will insure that the planning decisions are

(5) In cases where the urbanized area reflective of and responsive to both the pro- is located in more than one State, the initial grams of the State highway department and agreement should be between the State highway the needs and desires of the local communities. departments involved. The responsibility for The agreement may be directly between the effecting State and local cooperation rests with State highway department and the local govern- the particular State highway department concerned. ing bodies or by way of an agreement between the State highway department and an agency

(6) The memorandum of understanding or agencies embracing the urban area en- need not follow any prescribed format but should compassed in the transportation planning pro- clearly indicate that a continuing comprehensive cess and qualified to act in behalf of the local transportation planning process is to be carried jurisdictions for this purpose. The State on cooperatively by the States and the local highway department will be expected to show political subdivisions. The administrative proby suitable evidence that scrupulous efforts cedure by which this cooperation is to be effected, have been made to carry out the intent of the including an assignment of duties and responsiAct with respect to cooperative action by all bilities, should be covered in the memorandum political subdivisions. If there is an unwilling- or by reference to a prospectus. ness on the part of a local political unit within an urban area to participate in the transpor- 5. SCOPE OF THE ELEMENTS OF THE TRANStation planning process in such area, a deter- PORTATION PLANNING PROCESS mination shall be made as to whether the percentage of the urban area affected is such as

The following sections supplement the defito negate an effective planning process for the nitions of the ten elements in the transportation whole area.

planning process as set forth in paragraph 4a(4). (2) Cooperation is construed to mean

Economic factors affecting development that each jurisdiction having authority and responsibility for actions of regionwide sig

(1) An economic study should provide nificance should have appropriate voice in the an estimate of the total change in the level of transportation planning process, either through economic activity in the study area from the direct participation or through adequate re- present to the forecast year. This forecast of presentation. State highway departments should future economic activity together with the popusolicit the cooperation of all political subdivis- lation forecast will provide the basic input for ions having such authority and responsibility. the land use and travel forecasts. This solicitation can be made directly to the governing bodies of each individual political

(2) The economic study should consist subdivision or through an appropriate local of the collection, analysis, and forecasting of the agency.

following elements: (3) Ideally, all political subdivisions


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(3) The economic study should also include an inventory and analysis of all pertinent economic forecasts made by others for the larger region, the study area, or for any of its subunits.

(4) Economic data are required at two levels of geographic detail; (1) for the study area as a whole, and (2) for traffic analysis zones, census tracts, or other small areal units. At the study area level, data should be collected for current and past years in sufficient detail to permit a thorough analysis.

(1) A population forecast is required to provide an estimate of the total potential tripmakers at some future time. The population and economic forecasts together form the basis for estimating future land use and travel demands, since the number of people and jobs are the major determinants of tripmaking.

(2) The first step in a population study should be a survey of all available historical data on total population, its distribution by small areas, and its characteristics. Using these data, analyses can be made of changes in rates of growth and in composition of the population, Such analyses will aid in determining the appropriate forecasting technique to be used.

(5) At the small area level, data are needed for the current period for trip generation and land use analyses. In addition, it is desirable to have small area data for a past time period to determine whether current relationships have been stable over time.

(6) In making the forecasts of future economic activity, the study area's economic advantage in holding and attracting industries and workers should be analyzed and evaluated. Industry location decisions are influenced by such factors as costs of production, access to resources, characteristics of the labor force (i. e., its occupational skills, productivity, educational level, age, sex, etc.), the quality of the area's nonhuman resources, including the geography of the region (i. e., the future supply of these resources, climate, terrain, water, transportation, recreational facilities, etc.), and the fiscal and financial policies guiding the area's governing unit (i. e., its tax structure, borrowing powers, etc.).

(7) Moreover, analyses of data forecasts should take account of the effect on the local economy of variations (recent or otherwise) in the national economy; the effect of economic fluctuations on different industries, and the probable effect of technological developments on local industries over time.

(3) All available pertinent population studies previously conducted by others should be fully utilized to the extent they are applicable and acceptable. These may include estimates of current population as well as forecasts, and may relate to the study area, parts of the area, or to larger regions containing the study area.

(4) Several forecasting methods are in common use today. The technique used to forecast population will depend upon the input requirements of other phases of the study, the detail of the available data, and the special characteristics of the study area (size, composition, and growth rate). The most important information that should be provided by the forecast is an estimate of future total population and average household size (or number of households).

(5) All assumptions and the reasons for making them should be documented. The population forecast should be checked for consistency with other forecasts independently prepared, especially those relating to employment.

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(8) Forecasts which are merely extrapolations of recent trends may give misleading estimates of the future. An analysis of relationships between factors found within

(1) Th land use study incorporates a wide variety of undertakings, all of which are aimed at providing an accounting of the current land use activity structure of the study area and the most probable or desirable future structure.

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June 21, 1967

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(a) An inventory of the location and intensity of existing land use activities, including vacant land. The inventory of vacant land should take account of land subject to flood, to the extent such information is available. Requests for flood hazard information may be addressed to the appropriate district office of the Corps of Engineers, U.S. Army. Inventory should also be made of authorized public and private capital improvement plans and programs, and existing pertinent zoning and subdivision regulations.

(6) Land use forecasts provide the information needed for the travel forecasts. Normally these will be required for both a short-range period of about five years, as well as for a long-range period of about 20 years, to correspond to capital improvement program periods. In some cases, the forecasting process itself, as well as the requirements of the other phases of the study, may warrant forecasts for each five-year increment of the 20-year forecast period. The estimates of the future distribution of land use activities should permit periodic comparison of forecasts to actual development.

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(b) An analysis of past trends to aid in determining land consumption rates and the most likely location patterns of households and business firms.

(7) The specific information to be provided by the forecast will vary considerably with the size of the study area. As a minimum, however, the following estimates should be provided for each zone, for each forecast period:

(a) Population

(c) The distribution of an areawide forecast of population and economic activity to small areas (zones). The forecast should give full consideration to officially approved plans or programs and community goals and objectives.

(b) Number of occupied dwelling


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(3) The land use data needed as a

(c) Net residential density base for developing the forecast may be obtained from field surveys, local planning

(d) Automobile ownership agencies, other secondary sources, or a combination of these. All existing land use data,

(e) Total employment such as those available in local planning departments, should be fully utilized, provided

(f) Retail employment or other they are adequate for the needs of the trans- indicators of the amount of retail activity such portation study. Where a new field survey is as retail sales, or floor area in retail use necessary, it should be jointly undertaken by local and regional planning agencies working

(g) Amount of nonresidential land with the transportation study group.

by major land use categories (4) The land use data should be

(h) Amount of vacant land collected in a form that will allow their use for a variety of public and private planning

d. Transportation facilities including those purposes, including study of the area's land for mass transportation use characteristics and growth trends. To accomplish these objectives, it is desirable

(1) The inventory of the existing to list land use by specific activity rather than transportation system should provide complete to classify land use into general categories. information on the physical features and operational The Standard Land Use Coding Manual is a characteristics of each link of the major street valuable guide for identifying and coding detailed system (freeways, expressways, arterials, and land use activities. Adherence to the system collectors). Among the physical features of roads recommended in the manual will maintain and streets that should be inventoried are rightdetailed data in a form that will permit its of-way width, roadway width, roadw ay type and application to specific needs of various users condition, parking regulations, and traffic conas they arise.

trol regulations and devices. Other items that may

be included are listed in the National Committee (5) A forecast of land uses within an on Urban Transportation NCUT) Procedure Manual

their type, intensity, and geographic 5A, Inventory of the Physical Street System. The distribution - is based on the long range goals items to be included should fit the specific needs and objectives of the individual communities, of each urban area study. the broad planning concepts for the entire urban region, and the market forces inherent in

(2) Operational characteristics needed private and public capital expenditures. The include the capacities of the roadways and the land use forecast is essential for determining Imajor street intersections; the volume of traffic

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