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C. Section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act of 1966 (16 USC 470(f)), effect of Federal undertakings upon properties listed in the National Register, requires that
the head of any Federal agency having direct or indirect jurisdiction over a proposed Federal or federally assisted undertaking in any state and the head of any Federal department or independent agency having authority to license any undertaking shall, prior to the approval of the expenditure of any Federal funds on the undertaking or prior to the issuance of any license, as
"Locate, inventory, and nominate to the Secretary of the Interior all sites, buildings, districts, and objects under their jurisdiction or control that appear to qualify for listing on the National Register of Historic Places. As these inventories and nominations are completed by the various federal agencies, they should be incorporated into the inventory process outlined in this study as additional properties listed in the National Register. While the Executive Order requires completion of these inventories no later than July 1, 1973, it is conceivable that new material relating to the historical, architectural or archeosultation process set forth in the Advisory Council's Compliance Procedures.
II. Compliance with Section 1(3)–Protection of
non-federally owned properties eligible for the National Register.
logical significance of properties owned or controlled by a federal agency may be uncovered during subsequent inventory work. Therefore, the results of the various inventories suggested in this report should be made available to all Federal agencies, the Advisory Council and the Secretary of the Interior for use in updating existing work. The results of inventories completed in connection with DOT related projects will especially assist agencies in identifying nonFederally owned properties and meeting the requirements of sub-section (3) of Section 1. of the Executive Order "to assure that Federal plans and programs contribute to the preservation and enhancement of non-Federally owned sites, structures and objects of historical, architectural or archeological significance."
1. Eligibility for the National Register. If
the Agency Official determines that a non-federally owned property in the Historic Resources Inventory appears to meet the National Register Criteria or if it is questionable whether the National Register Criteria are met, the Agency Official shall request, in writing. an opinion from the Secretary of the Interior respecting the property's eligibility for inclusion in the National Register.
To facilitate comments under Section 106 of the Historic Preservation Act and in order to comply with Executive Order 11593, the Advisory Council has adopted certain procedures which state that:
At the earliest stage of planning or consideration of the proposed undertaking, the Agency Official shall take the following steps to comply with the requirements of Section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act and Sections 1(3) and 2(b) of Executive Order 11593.
2. Property not eligible. If the Agency
Official finds the property clearly not eligible for inclusion in the National Register, or upon receipt of the written opinion of the Secretary that the prop erty is not eligible for inclusion in the National Register, the Agency Official may proceed with the undertaking. The Agency Official shall keep adequate documentation of this determination.
Golden Gate National Recreation Area-San Francisco's Golden Gate Bridge is an eye-catching "signpost" in the Bay recreation area proposal now underway by the National Park Service.
PART THREE-GUIDELINES FOR MINIMIZING THE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT
OF PROPOSED HIGHWAY CONSTRUCTION ACTIVITIES
While this study is primarily concerned with inventory methodology and ways of incorporating the findings into the highway planning decision making process, it is appropriate that a number of techniques for fitting the proposed highway construction project into the existing fabric of a community be presented here. Such techniques and design devices should be presented as part of the "highway design public hearing." The recommendations are based on previously published materials as well as investigations and research completed as a part of this study. Primary source material is listed with each summary discussion.
traffic speed and handrail design-the quantity of available view. The View from the Road defines three types of views regarding highways, the views seen by the driver and his passengers, the view of the facility from outside, as a three dimensional form, and the view of the roadway itself-textures, signs, colors and lighting. Alternative highway alignments within a given corridor may differ greatly in the quality of the view from the road, as well as the view of the road, and due consideration should be given to utilizing the alignment and elevation in a creative manner. The view from the road can be of great benefit to historic preservation objectives by helping to establish a sense of place and order through visual linkages to established lankmark structures in a community. The vistas and viewpoints made available from the construction of a new highway facility can also be used to point out the visual quality of an area, and make the existence of a unique area such as a historic district known to the visitor and the commuter alike.
A. Alternative Alignments
Alternative alignments within the selected route are of critical importance, especially if it is possible to separate the two travel corridors at varying distances, so that they in effect become a pair of one-way highways. This simple device will reduce the mass and scale of a highway, and eliminate most of the monotonous uniform width median strip typical of most highways. The distance between the two travel corridors can vary from a few feet to as much as several city blocks, depending on local conditions and property acquisition programs.
Techniques for identifying the type and quality of visual experiences that might be made available from existing and proposed highways are described in detail in The View from the Road, especially Chapter 2, "Recording Highway Sequences," and Chapter 3, "Analysis of an Existing Highway." The subject is also treated in Chapter 1, Part Three of Man-Made America: Chaos or Control?, "The Development of Freeway Form."f
Conversely, in dense urban areas or along hillsides, the facility might become more concentrated through the use of multi-level construction or terracing to reduce the required width of the highway right-of-way. These alternatives should be made clear at the design stage public hearing.
The alignment and elevation of a highway within a given corridor will also determine the visual experience available to a user of the facility. Referred to as the "view from the road" in a 1963 publication, this experience is determined by the alignment and path of the facility with regard to buildings, open spaces and vistas-the quality of the view; and by
Ideally, the proposed highway should not travel through the historic district or other area of interest, but should be located alongside or around the area, with a choice of ingress and egress provided. In this manner the highway can play a positive role, helping to strengthen the identity of existing and emerging historic areas by providing clearly definable edges, and protecting these areas by separating them from incompatible land use areas or areas of a negative
*Donald Appleyard, Kevin Lynch and John R. Meyer, The View from the Road, M.I.T. Press, Cambridge, 1963.
tTunnard, Christopher, and Boris Pushkarev, Man-Made America: Chaos or Control?, Yale University Press, New Haven and London, 1963.
visual character. If economics permit a proposed highway facility to be depressed and covered over, the resulting right-of-way can be used to link areas together. While construction costs of a cut-and-cover solution are high, important linkages can be developed by landscaping the terraced right-of-way as a public open space and in scale parking areas to serve residents and users of both areas, or through the use of "traffic architecture" by creating multi-use structures such as shopping complexes, public offices or other uses of a communal nature. The role and potential of alternative highway proposals regarding edges and linkages should be clearly presented, with appropriate graphics, at the highway design public hearing. Possible reuse of areas adjacent to or below elevated sections of any proposed facility should also be presented."
scale, materials, lighting, graphics, landscaping and other roadside improvements. Scale is critical to successfully integrating any highway facility with the visual character of a community. If the highway is to traverse or run alongside what are normally fine grained historic areas, the highway's overwhelming mass and most objectionable visual features must be carefully considered. Every effort should be made to reduce the mass, scale and required land area to be more in keeping with the scale of the community, and any devices developed during the highway design studies should be presented at the public hearing.
B. Respect for the Existing Street Patterns
New highway facilities, especially overpasses, bridges and elevated sections, should express the structural systems and materials used in its construction, as evidence of 20th-century technology. Steel or concrete highway structures should not be disguised by the application of wood, masonry or other facade coverings. However, if the new facility is relatively small and is an isolated feature, such as a stream crossing or pedestrian tunnel, and not part of a total highway construction program, the State Historic Preservation Agency should have the option of recommending some form of cosmetic treatment if requested by the local officials and historic group. The suggested use of color, especially earth colors, self-coating metals like Core-10 steel, and exposed aggregate concrete should also be presented as part of the public hearing, with recommendations for each highway department alternate proposal.
New highway construction should respect the existing street patterns. The existing street pattern is often the most dominant man-made feature of our towns and cities and must be respected if a sense of order and historic integrity is to remain. In most cases the street system is the oldest remaining artifact, predating all but a very few structures that remain, and as such can be of architectural, planning, landscape, historic, social and associative significance. In the case of linear or gridiron patterns, the proposed highway facility should be parallel or perpendicular to the dominant pattern, and not cross it as a diagonal or wind through it in a curving pattern. In geometric street systems the new facility should be incorporated into the pattern of two-dimensional design. A new facility should complement the layout of streets in a curvilinear pattern, which is usually based on topography or other natural features, and should not cut through such a system in a straight line. The relationship of each highway alternative to the existing street pattern of a community should be shown on a series of overlay maps, and be made available for review at the highway design stage public hearing.
Lighting and graphics can also contribute to the successful melding of a highway with a historic district or other area of visual importance, and proposals should be prepared for each alternative. The kind and intensity of lighting proposed to illuminate the roadway itself, with pole height and spacing if an elevated system is considered, should be clearly identified through sketches or photographs of similar installations. In addition, lighting from the highway facility can be used to point out landmark structures or other points of reference for the highway user and the pedestrian, resident or visitor to the community. A creative lighting system can contribute to establishing a sense of place and continuity, and will provide the obvious benefit of protection through illumination, to the landmark structure with regard to defacing, and to the pedestrian, making the area a safer place to visit at night.
C. Design Features
Design features of all alternatives should be clearly defined and presented as a major component of the alternative schemes. Such features include
*In New York State, the State Department of Transportation suggests that these areas be turned over to and operated by the applicable town or city's recreation department.
The placement and design of highway graphics should contribute to the visual character of the highway and surrounding area, as well as provide