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period in which it was constructed. Buildings of each particular style should be evaluated on their own merits, according to how the property under study compares to the best architectural statements of that particular style. It is recognized that the earliest architectural style present in a community is often considered by the residents of that area to be the most important, but these factors of age and associative links are historic considerations and should not be allowed to influence the architectural evaluation of any property.
(vii) Districts or significant larger con
centrations of quality buildings or sites, often made up of individual landmark structures supported by a larger number of structures of somewhat lesser importance. Such districts are normally easily definable and have a significance over and above the sum of the values of each historic site because of the total historic environment. Districts may or may not be legally recognized through historic district zoning regulations, and might vary in size from village greens to sections of a larger city, to entire towns.
Types of Items to Be Inventoried
Individual structures, of all kinds and uses, representative of the architectural development of the United States. This includes buildings and structures of national, state and local significance.
(viii) Special character areas, which dif
fer from historic districts in that their significance may be the result of a concentration of activities rather than buildings, structures or sites. Bourbon Street, New Orleans; Old Town, Albuquerque; Fisherman's Wharf, San Francisco; and Wisconsin Avenue in Georgetown, D.C., are examples of special character areas. In some cases, areas will fall into both the historic district and special character areas. Examples include the French Market area of New Orelans, the market area in Charleston, "ghost towns" and inhabited Indian villages, such as Taos, New Mexico. They should be recorded in both categories.
(iii) Buildings and structures of signifi
cance in the fields of engineering, manufacturing or industry, including mills, factories, bridges, waterworks, etc.
(iv) Unique or indigenous building
forms, including water or wind powered grist or saw mills, traditional rural building types such as bank barns, round barns, log structures, and the architectural curiosities.
(ix) Fixed works of art, including
commemorative sculpture, wall murals, graphics, funereal sculpture and items of street furniture such as clocks, lamp posts, etc.
amount of desecration, if any. This is not to imply that a building that has been added to or altered should automatically be penalized. If such alterations are a valid example of architectural thinking of the period, they should be considered as legitimate
changes to the original fabric. (iii) Incidence of the particular build
ing type or design in the area. A building may gain added import. ance if it is a rare or unique type, or conversely, one of a concentration of indigenous building forms.
(iv) Special architectural features and
details of importance, including entrances, carved decorative moldings and appliqués, stained glass, etc.
The following material should be developed from the above survey and reviewed by the State Historic Preservation Agency and the SHPO. After certification by the SHPO, the material should be transmitted to the state highway department, and to assist in compliance with Executive Order 11593, to the National Register, in the following form:
Building groups, districts and special character areas should be evaluated on the basis of: geographic size and location of the area in relation to the affected community; number of and relative percentage of buildings, structures and sites of significance with regard to the district itself and the total community (i.e., 60% of the buildings or sites in the area are of national, state or local significance, and 35% of the significant buildings and sites in the community are situated in the study area); the integrity or lack of desecration of the district; the visual arrangement and distribution of the various phsyical components of the district; the physical, visual and associative identity of the district and its relationship to the surrounding community; and other physical and visual amenities such as landscaping, texture, street paving, street furniture, urban graphics, etc.*
A qualitative analysis, description and listing of all historic places that must be protected and retained in their original location with little if any alteration to the site and environment. Buildings, structures, sites, districts and areas on this list shall be considered as Priority One for preservation purposes. (Included in this category should be National Register properties and properties eligible or probably eligible for National Register listing.)
An anlysis, description and listing of buildings, structures, sites, districts and areas of major significance which add to the quality of the surroundings and should if possible be retained in their original location. However, to avoid potential environmental or physical damage to the property from any highway department proposal properties on this list might be moved with the concurrence of the State Historic Preservation Agency. Sites for the moved structures should be approved by the SHPA, and all moving, site preparation and utility hook-up costs, as well as the purchase of the new
*See Appendix L for a discussion in draft form of Proposed Unit Criteria For Districts, prepared by Dr. William Murtagh, Keeper of the National Register, National Park Service, U.S. Department of the Interior, presented at the Rome Centre North American International Regional Conference, Philadelphia, Pa. 9.10.72.
keyed to show the assigned preservation priority as discussed above.
(v) Copies of all field notes, sketches,
survey forms and photographs used in the inventory and evaluation process.
site, should be paid for by the state highway department as part of the project costs in those states where this is possible. Under 1972 Federal-aid Highway legislation, Federal highway funds can share in the cost of land and its structures plus the cost of clearing the land of its structures. These monies (Federal share of cost of land and cost of clearing) can be used by the state or others to assist in defraying the cost of relocating historic structures. This list is considered as Priority Two. (Included in this list may be National Register properties and properties eligible or probably eligible for National Register listing.)
(vi) A brief written report explaining
methodology, staff members involved, including the makeup of the review jury, and a summary of the findings of the inventory.
After review by the State Historic Preservation Agency, the state review board set up to review nominations to the National Register, and certification by the State Historic Preservation Officer, the architectural section of the Historic Sites Inventory should be forwarded to the state highway department.
2. Archeological Sites-The Significance of Any
Archeological Sites in or Contiguous to the
(iii) A listing of buildings, structures,
sites, districts and areas which should be included in the decision making process as possessing architectural, historic, cultural or visual interest. As individual properties or concentration, entries on this list may be considered of lesser importance than those of Priority One or Two, but their cumulative value, if a number are to be impacted by highway construction activities, may approach these higher listings. This list constitutes Priority Three and all properties so listed should be recorded and photographed before any highway construction activity begins. Also, at the discretion of the state highway department, any property on this list scheduled for demolition or otherwise adversely affected may be made available, after acquisition, for relocation at private expense, with first refusal going to the current property owner or his tenant. (There may be no National Register properties or properties eligible or probably eligible for National Register listing on this list).
It is more than likely that most state highway departments and many State Historic Preservation Agencies will lack the necessary expertise to professionally inventory a given highway corridor for archeological sites of significance. In some cases, this section of the Historic Sites Inventory will best be completed by the state archeologist or his staff, if such a position exists, or by a consulting institution under contract to the state highway department, but reporting to the state preservation agency or HPO. The archeologist should present his findings to the state review board and assist in assigning preservation priorities to the inventoried sites. In many cases it will be necessary to conduct preliminary excavation and salvage work to adequately determine the significance of certain sites. However, such investigations should only be undertaken on publicly owned land or with the written permission of the property owner. In every instance, all work shall conform to the Uniform Rules and Regulations of the Act for the Preservation of American Antiquities and provisions of the Department of Transportation Policy and Procedures Memorandum 20-7. PPM 20-7 "prescribes the policies and procedures for implementing the Provisions of Section 305, Title 23 U.S.C., involving the use of Federal highway funds for archeological and paleontolog
(iv) Work maps showing the location
of each property inventoried
ical salvage on Federal and Federal-aid projects." The term salvage is defined to include any or all of the following activities:
(1) Reconnaissance Survey shall mean any work for the location of sites of historic objects on or along proposed routes during or after the route selection stage of a highway project.
(2) Preliminary Site Examination shall mean any work for the inspection, preliminary testing, and evaluation of known or suspected sites of historic objects to determine the necessity of salvage work.
state through prior work to know beforehand that there is little likelihood of discovering archeological sites to be investigated, a reconnaissance survey of all proposed highway corridors should be completed on foot or by car. Using the applicable USGS maps or state highway department maps, all archeological sites should be recorded and numbered. The specific location should be noted, for example, by the compass direction and the number of miles from a known reference point-a highway intersection, railroad line, stream bed, county or township line, etc. This assigned site number should be a permanent designation and used for all recording and notes relating to this site. The site should be photographed from as many directions as needed to explain terrain and form and its relationship to the surrounding area. In some cases a sketch of the site may be included to clarify points not readily photographed. If possible, surface artifactual materials should be collected and recorded by site number, including potsherds, stone flakes and the remains of tools, fossils, etc.
(3) Salvage Work shall mean any work for the excavation, removal and preservation of historic objects, and/or the collection of data relating thereto, and may include the preparation and issuance of a report to the participating agencies covering the salvage work. ...
Historic objects referred to under PPM 20-7 include: