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Census of Housing

Taken as part of
the Eighteenth Decennial Census of the United States

Volume I States and Small Areas


Part 4 Iowa-Massachusetts

Data on Tenure, Rent, Value, Equipment,

Condition, Plumbing, etc.

Prepared under the supervision of

Acting Chief, Housing Division




RICHARD M. SCAMMON, Director (from May 1, 1961)

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This part of Volume I presents detailed data on the characteristics of housing units for States, with separate statistics for each standard metropolitan statistical area, urbanized area, place of 1,000 inhabitants or more, and county, and for the rural-farm and ruralnonfarm units in each county. Data for each State constitute a separate chapter. Basic statistics are presented on all subjects for which information was collected in the Census of Housing taken as of April 1, 1960.

The chapters of Volume I were published first as a series of reports, Series HC(1). A separate report was published for the United States and for each of the 50 States and the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Virgin Islands of the United States. Part 1 of the volume consists of the United States Summary chapter; Parts 2 to 8 contain the chapters for the States and the District of Columbia; and Part 9 contains the chapters for Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Virgin Islands of the United States. The United States Summary chapter provides data for the United States, regions, and divisions, as well as summarizations of data for States and for standard metropolitan statistical areas and places of 100,000 inhabitants or more in the United States.

Authorization for the 1960 Census of Housing was provided in the Act of Congress of August 31, 1954 (amended August 1957), which codified Title 13, United States Code. The law provides for a decennial census of housing, including utilities and equipment, to be taken in each of the 50 States, the District of Columbia, the Virgin Islands, Guam, and the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico.

The census program was designed in consultation with advisory committees and individuals to achieve a census having optimum value to users of housing statistics. The Housing Advisory Committee was organized by the Director of the Bureau of the Census and was made up of persons in private industry, universities, and local governments. It advised on various aspects of the housing census programs except the technical phases of the Residential Finance program for which the Technical Advisory Committee on Residential Finance was organized. A Federal Agency Population and Housing Census Council, organized by the Bureau of the Budget and made up of persons in Federal agencies, also advised on the basic programs. A joint staff committee, set up by the Administrator of the Housing and Home Finance Agency and the Director of the Bureau of the Census, concentrated on aspects of particular interest to the housing agencies. In addition to the committees, working groups of specialists in housing subjects assisted the Census Bureau staff in the evaluation and improvement of housing concepts. A number of other committees, groups, and individuals also made contributions to the planning of the housing census.

June 1963.


A number of persons both within and outside the Bureau of the Census participated in the various activities of the 1960 Census of Housing. Specific responsibilities were exercised by members of the Housing, Demographic Operations, Field, Geography, and Statistical Methods Divisions of the Census Bureau. Volume I was planned under the direction of Wayne F. Daugherty, then Chief, Housing Division, who was succeeded by Daniel B. Rathbun; the publication was completed under the general supervision of Arthur F. Young, Acting Chief. The statistical presentation of the detailed tables was developed by Nathan Krevor, Chief, Coordination and Research Branch, assisted by William E. Grubbs, Charles J. Hedetniemi, Jr., Matthew J. Rose, and Leonard J. Norry. The text materials, including the analytical findings in the United States Summary, were prepared by Beulah Washabaugh, Special Assistant, assisted by Aneda E. France, Elmo E. Beach, Mildred Lam, Hazel H. Moore, and Mary E. Barstow. Frank S. Kristof, then Assistant Chief, Housing Division, and Naomi D. Rothwell were in charge of the housing subjects in the training program for the collection of data. Others who were responsible for a specific phase of the program include J. Hugh Rose, Chief, Structural Statistics Branch, assisted by Meyer Zitter and Arthur G. Dukakis; Herbert Shapiro, Chief, Financial Statistics Branch; Alexander C. Findlay, Chief, Facilities and Equipment Branch; and Milton D. Lieberman, then Chief, Coordination and Research Branch.

Important contributions were made by Glen S. Taylor, then Chief, Richard A. Hornseth, Denver K. Ingram, Patience Lauriat, Richard J. Rice, Betty Mitchell, and Bernadette H. Marlow of the Demographic Operations Division in the processing of the data; Robert B. Voight, then Chief, Jefferson D. McPike, Ivan G. Munro, and George K. Klink of the Field Division in the collection of the information, and Genevieve D. Welsh in the coordination of enumerator instructions; William T. Fay, Robert C. Klove, and Robert L. Hagan of the Geography Division in the delineation of special types of urban territory and other geographic work, and George W. Morris in the preparation of maps and charts; Joseph Steinberg, Robert H. Hanson, Herman Fasteau, George Minton, Warren J. Mitofsky, Barbara A. Boyes, Kathern Clay, and Anthony Turner of the Statistical Methods Division in planning the sampling, estimation, and quality control procedures. William N. Hurwitz, Chief, Statistical Research Division, assisted by Harold Nisselson, Jack Silver, Leon Gilford, and William H. Cook were instrumental in the formulation of field plans. Sheldon M. Klein and Ingrid L. Millison of the Statistical Reports Division reviewed text material and table format. The technical editorial work was under the supervision of Mildred M. Russell of the Population Division, assisted by Louise L. Douglas. Robert H. Brooks of the Administrative Service Division was responsible for the printing arrangements.

Important contributions were also made by the staffs of the Administrative Service Division, Everett H. Burke, Chief; Budget and Management Division, Charles H. Alexander, Chief; Census Operations Office, Robert D. Krook, Executive Officer; Data Processing Systems Division, Robert F. Drury, Chief; Personnel Division, James P. Taff, Chief; and Statistical Reports Division, Edwin D. Goldfield, Chief.

The regional directors who were responsible for the conduct of the census in the field were: Meredith A. Bass, Edgar L. Bryan, John G. Gibson, Leonard C. Isley, Guy A. Lutz, Thomas W. McWhirter, Percy R. Millard, Joseph R. Norwood, Theodore F. Olson, Guy E. Rainboth, James W. Stroud, John E. Tharaldson, Jack W. Traverse, Jr., James W. Turbitt, Francis H. Wilmer, Hobert A. Yerkey, and Arthur F. Young.

The Housing Advisory Committee aided the Bureau in the selection of subjects, concepts, and definitions used. The Bureau staff called upon members of the committee for advice in planning the census, and their counsel and guidance were invaluable in developing the program. Members of the committee were: Miles L. Colean, Chairman, Glenn H. Beyer, L. Durward Badgley, Charles Blessing, Edward E. Edwards, Ernest M. Fisher, Arthur S. Goldman, Catherine Martini, Martin Meyerson, Davis McEntire, Hugh Mields, Jr., Anthony J. Nesti, Daniel Parson, Nathaniel H. Rogg, Bert Seidman, William H. Shaw, William J. Shickler, William Slayton, James F. Steiner, and Robert C. Weaver. Two working groups under the leadership of J. Hugh Rose developed the unit of enumeration and a revised measure of condition of housing; their work led to the adoption of the “housing unit” and to the use of three categories for condition. Those who served were: E. Everett Ashley, III, Lawrence N. Bloomberg, Glenn H. Beyer, Carl A. S. Coan, Miles L. Colean, Mason Doan, Paul C. Glick, Morton Hoffman, the late John Innes, Benjamin Lipstein, Orville 0. McCracken, Ivan G. Munro, Catherine Martini, Chester Rapkin, and Bert Seidman.

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Results of the 1960 Census of Housing are published in seven housing volumes as described below. A separate series containing the census tract reports is a joint publication with data from both the 1960 Census of Housing and the 1960 Census of Population. A series of special reports for local housing authorities constitutes the remainder of the final reports. The source of the data is the April 1960 enumeration, except for Volumes IV and V which are based largely on the enumeration of units in a sample of land area segments, started in late 1959 and completed in 1960. Prior to the final reports, several series of preliminary and advance reports were issued. Some unpublished statistics can be obtained for the cost of preparing a copy and certain special tabulations can be prepared, on a reimbursable basis, on request to the Chief, Housing Division, Bureau of the Census, Washington 25, D.C.

Volume I (Series HC(1) reports). States and Small Areas. Information about all subjects covered in the April 1960 enumeration, with a separate report for the United States by regions and geographic divisions, each of the 50 States, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Virgin Islands of the United States. In the State reports, information is shown for the State; each standard metropolitan statistical area and its constituent parts; each urbanized area, place of 1,000 inhabitants or more, and county; and the ruralfarm and rural-nonfarm parts of each county. The volume covers occupancy characteristics, structural characteristics, condition and plumbing facilities, equipment and fuels, and financial characteristics. The subjects are: Color, persons, persons per room, tenure, year moved into unit, vacancy status, and duration of vacancy; basement, bedrooms, elevator in structure, rooms, units in structure, and year structure built; bathing facilities, bathrooms, condition, sewage disposal, source of water, toilet facilities, and water supply; air conditioning, automobiles available, clothes dryer, clothes washing machine, cooking fuel, heating equipment, her ting fuel, home food freezer, radio sets, telephone available, television sets, and water heating fuel; contract rent, gross rent, and value.

Volume II (Series HC(2) reports). Metropolitan Housing. Cross-tabulations of housing and household characteristics, with a separate report for the United States by geographic divisions, and for each of the 192 standard metropolitan statistical areas of 100,000 inhabitants or more in the United States and Puerto Rico. Separate statistics for each of the 134 places of 100,000 inhabitants or more are included in the metropolitan area reports.

Volume III (Series HC(3) reports). City Blocks. Separate reports for cities and other urban places having 50,000 inhabitants or more prior to and at the time of the 1960 Census, and for a number of smaller localities which arranged for block statistics. Data for a limited number of characteristics are presented by blocks. Statistics for 466 cities and localities in the United States and Puerto Rico are published in 420 separate reports.

Volume IV (Series HC(4) reports). Components of Inventory Change. Information on the source of the 1959 inventory and the disposition of the 1950 and 1956 inventories. Data are provided for components of change such as new construction, conversion, merger, demolition, and other additions and losses. Part 1 of the volume contains the 1950 to 1959 comparison, with a separate report for the United States by regions, and each of 17 selected metropolitan areas (15 standard metropolitan statistical areas, defined as of June 8, 1959, and 2 standard consolidated areas). Part 1 is published in two sets of reports for each area. Part 1 A presents basic 1950 and 1959 data, with emphasis on the counts and characteristics of the components of change; Part 1B presents additional information on characteristics of the inventory, including characteristics of the present and previous residences of recent movers. Part 2 contains the 1957 to 1959 comparison, with a separate report for conterminous United States by regions, and separate reports for 9 of the selected areas (standard metropolitan areas defined for the 1956 inventory).

Volume V. Residential Finance. Information on financing of residential property, including characteristics of mortgages, properties, and homeowners. Part 1 of the volume is a report on homeowner properties for the United States by regions, and each of 17 selected metropolitan areas (15 standard metropolitan statistical areas, defined as of June 8, 1959, and 2 standard consolidated areas). Part 2 is a report on rental and vacant properties for the United States.

Volume VI. Rural Housing. Cross-tabulations of housing and household characteristics of rural-farm and rural-nonfarm housing units for the United States and each of the 121 economic subregions.

Volume VII. Housing of Senior Citizens. Cross-tabulations of housing and household characteristics of units occupied by persons 60

years old and over, for the United States, each of the 50 States and the District of Columbia, and selected standard metropolitan sta

tistical areas.

Series PHC(1) reports. Census Tracts. Separate reports for 180 tracted areas in the United States and Puerto Rico. The reports contain information, by census tracts, on both housing and population subjects. (This series is the same as the tract reports included in the publication program for the 1960 Census of Population.)

Series HC(S1) reports. Special Reports for Local Housing Authorities. Separate reports for 139 localities in the United States. The program was requested by, and planned in cooperation with, the Public Housing Administration. The reports contain data on both owner- and renter-occupied housing units defined as substandard by Public Housing Administration criteria, with emphasis on gross rent, size of family, and income of renter families.


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