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quently passed, but no dedication of the added space is made, by express enactment, to the use of either house.

Act approved March 2, 1867 (14 Stat. L., p. 466), abolishes the office of Commissioner of Public Buildings and transfers his duties to the Chief Engineer of the Army, except as otherwise provided by law.

Act approved August 15, 1876 (19 Stat. L., p. 147), provides, "That the Achitect of the Capitol shall have the care and superintendence of the Capitol, including lighting.

"And provided further, that all the duties relative to the Capitol Building heretofore performed by the Commissioner of Public Buildings and Grounds, shall hereafter be performed by the Architect of the Capitol, whose office shall be in the Capitol Building."

NOTE. By virtue of the provision of the act, last above cited, the duties of the care, preservation, and orderly keeping of the south wing of the Capitol, under regulations, prescribed by the Speaker, devolve upon the Architect of the Capitol. (See act of May 2, 1828, supra.)

The act of August 15, 1876, imposing these duties upon the Architect (cited above), is not affected by the repeal provisions of the Revised Statutes, which became law June 22, 1874. The provisions of the Revised Statutes, in so far as they conflict with the act of 1876, are themselves repealed, and the provision of 1876 is the present law.


The authority to prescribe rules and regulations for the care, preservation, and orderly keeping" of that portion of the Capitol and appurtenances in the exclusive use and occupation of the House of Representatives, rests with the Speaker, and the Architect is required by law to enforce his orders on the subject.

The power to designate a keeper of the restaurant is either in the Speaker or in the House itself according to the interpre tation that may be given to the terms, " care, etc."


May 21, 1824 (Journal 1, 18, page 558): A joint committee on the distribution of the rooms in the center of the Capitol made

a report assigning certain rooms to the Senate, the House, and the Supreme Court, respectively.

Thereupon the following was agreed to by the House:

"Resolved by the Senate and House of Representatives in Congress assembled, That the distribution of the rooms in the center building of the Capitol be made agreeably to the above report."

It was then resolved by the House: "That a committee be appointed to make distribution of the rooms in the Capitol appropriated to the use of the House of Representatives."

May 26, 1824 (1, 18, page 593-594): The above-mentioned committee made a report assigning rooms to the several com mittees and officers of the House, and providing that, "The unappropriated rooms shall be subject to the order and dis posal of the Speaker until the further order of the House." It was thereupon resolved that the above report be agreed to.


(See RULE I, clause 7.)


(See also COMMITTEES.)

The first-named member of each committee shall be the chairman; and in his absence, or being excused by the House, the next-named member, and so on, as often as the case shall hap pen, unless the committee by a majority of its number elect a chairman; and in case of the death of a chairman, it shall be the duty of the Speaker to appoint another.-RULE X., clause 3.

This rule (except the last paragraph adopted February 14, 1890), was adopted December 28, 1805, and the occasion for its adoption was this:

Mr. John Cotton Smith, of Connecticut, had been chairman of the Committee of Claims for several years, and on the 5th November, 1804, was reappointed. On the succeeding day he was excused from service on the committee, and his colleague, Samuel W. Dana, was appointed in his stead." The committee considered Mr. Dana its chairman; he declined to act, contend

ing that he was the tail. Being unable to agree, the committee laid the case before the House on the 20th November. Up to this time there was no rule or regulation as to the head of a committee. The usage has been that the first-named member acted; but it was usage only. The subject was referred to a committee. On the 22d November, 1804, the committee reported, and recommended that the first-named member be the chairman; and in case of his absence, or of his being excused by the House, the committee should appoint a chairman by a majority of its votes. The House rejected this proposition. The Committee of Claims the next day notified the House that, unless some order was taken in the premises, no business could be done by the committee during the session; and thereupon, on the 20th December, 1805, the House adopted the above rule. In this case the Committee of Claims availed itself of the priv ilege contained in the last clause of the rule, and elected Mr. Dana chairman, much against his wishes.

The chairman shall appoint the clerk or clerks of his committee, subject to its approval, who shall be paid at the public expense, the House having first provided therefor.-RULE X, clause 4.



In all cases in forming a Committee of the Whole House, the Speaker shall leave his chair after appointing a Chairman to preside, who shall, in case of disturbance or disorderly conduct in the galleries or lobby, have power to cause the same to be cleared.-RULE XXIII, clause 1. See also clause 1, Rule IV.

Whenever a Committee of the Whole House finds itself without a quorum the Chairman shall cause the roll to be called, and thereupon the Committee shall rise and report the absentees to the House.-RULE XXIII, clause 2.

He is also authorized to administer oaths to witnesses.-R. S., sec. 101.


The duties of the Chairman of a Committee of the Whole are analogous to those of the Speaker, and so far as relates to


debate, questions of order, preservation of order and the like, he has all the authority of the Speaker. It is his duty to take notice of any standing or special order of the House, as well as rule, as, for instance, when the hour or time arrives when the House is to take a recess or proceed to the consideration of another question or proposition, he must vacate the chair and report the action of the Committee to the House.


(See RULES II and VII.)

The practice which had prevailed for several years, of the election by each house of a chaplain, who should open their daily sessions with prayer, alternating weekly between the House and Senate, was suspended during the 35th Congress. At the first session of that Congress a resolution was adopted by the House, which directed" that the daily sessions of that body be opened with prayer, and requesting the ministers of the gospel in this city to attend and alternately perform this solemn duty."-Journal, 1, 35, p. 58. The clergymen of Washington generally responded to this request, and for the remainder of the Congress performed the duty of chaplains. At the first session of the 36th Congress the old practice of the election of a chaplain by each house was revived, and it was at that time decided that a proposition to proceed to such election presented a question of privilege.-Journal 1, 36, pp. 442, 443. Until the revision of the rules in the 2d session of the 46th Congress there was no rule in this regard.


Each Member and Delegate entitled to ten charts of coast survey for each regular session of Congress.-See Statutes at Large, vol. 20, p. 382.


House employés shall not be.-RULE XLIII.

Members, officers, and employés not to act as.-R. S., sec.





The Secretary of the Treasury shall, at the commencement of each session of Congress, report the amount due each claimant whose claim has been allowed in whole or in part to the Speaker of the House of Representatives and the presiding officer of the Senate, who shall lay the same before their respective houses for consideration.-Sess. Laws, 1, 48, p. 254, act of July 7, 1884.


When to be appointed, and of what number.-RULE X.
Duties of.-RULE XI, clause 30.

This committee was created November 13, 1794 (2d session 3d Congress). For history of, see PENSIONS, COMMITTEE ON. Until the creation of the Committee on War Claims, December 2, 18.3 (1st session 43d Congress), this committee had jurisdiction of all private claims against the Government.


The Court of Claims was established by act of February 24th, 1855.-Stat. at Large, vol. 10, p.

The act of July 4th, 1864, Stat., vol. 13, p. 331, restricted the jurisdiction of the Court of Claims in respect to war claims and provided that claims for quartermasters' stores, etc., should be submitted to the Quartermaster-General.

Rooms for.-R. S., sec. 1051.

Reports of, to be made to Congress.-R. S., sec. 1057. Private claims, when transmitted to.-R. S., sec. 1060. Power of, to call for reports of committees.-R. S., sec. 1076. Members of either house of Congress shall not practice in the Court of Claims.-R. S., sec. 1058.

The act of Congress (commonly known as the "Bowman Act"), approved March 3, 1883, Statutes, vol. 22, p. 485, entitled "An act to afford assistance and relief to Congress and the Executive Departments in the investigations of claims and demands against the Government," enacts

That whenever a claim or matter is pending before any committee of the Senate or House of Representatives, or before either house of Congress, which involves the investigation and determination of facts, the commit

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