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appropriations for pensions, were made in separate bills. The first separate act for rivers and harbors appeared in 1828, and in 1844 the Post-Office and general deficiency bills were first passed as separate acts.

In 1847 the appropriations were made in nine separate bills, viz: Army; Civil and Diplomatic; Deficiency; Fortifications; Indians; Military Academy; Navy; Pensions; and PostOffice.

In 1856 the consular and diplomatic appropriations were first embodied in a separate bill, and in 1857 the legislative, execu tive, and judicial bill first appeared in the form which is still maintained.

In 1862 the sundry civil bill was added, containing the various miscellaneous items not embraced in the other bills.

In 1880 the agricultural and District of Columbia appropriations were first reported in separate bills, the Committee on Agriculture being given jurisdiction of the first-named bill.

Since then there have been thirteen regular annual appropriation bills, the river and harbor bill not being included, that being held to be not one of the general appropriation bills. See decision of Chairman Carlisle February 15, 1881, 3d ses sion, 46th Congress, Congressional Record, p. 1624.

An amendment in the nature of a private claim on the Government is not in order to a general appropriation bill.-Congressional Globe, 1, 31, pp. 1617, 1651; 2, 32, p. 736; 1, 33, pp. 385, 1483 [and such is the well-established practice].

Preference also given to general appropriation bills in Committee of the Whole.-RULE XVI, clause 9, and RULE XXIII, clause 4.

In considering general appropriation bills the clauses are invariably treated as sections,

As to the right of the Senate to originate appropriation bills, see House Report 147, third session Forty-sixth Congress.

The "general appropriation" bills under the present prac tice of the House number thirteen, viz:

Agricultural; Army; Consular and Diplomatic; Deficiency; District of Columbia; Fortification; Indian; Legislative, Execu tive, and Judicial; Military Academy; Naval; Pension; PostOffice, and Sundry Civil; what is known as the "River and

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Harbor bill" not being one of the general appropriation bills. The Committee on Appropriations report the Deficiency; District of Columbia; Fortification; Legislative, Executive, and Judicial; Pension, and Sundry Civil bills, the remaining bills being reported by the several committees having jurisdiction of their subject-mattter. (See clauses 3, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, and 15, RULE XI.

APPROPRIATIONS, COMMITTEE ON.

Number of members and duties of.-(See RULE X, and RULE XI, clause 3.)

The Committee on Appropriations was created on the 2d of March, 1865 (2d sess. 38th Congress), but not appointed until the Thirty-ninth Congress.

It was given the jurisdiction with respect to the general appropriation bills then possessed by the Committee on Ways and Means, which up to that Congress had reported such bills, with the exception, occasionally, of River and Harbor bills reported by the Committee on Commerce.

In the revision of the rules in the second session Forty-sixth Congress the Agricultural Appropriation bill was taken from it and assigned to the Committee on Agriculture. And on the 18th of December, 1885 (1st sess. 49th Congress), the Army; Consular and Diplomatic; Indian; Military Academy; Naval, and Post-Office bills were also taken from it and assigned to the various committees having jurisdiction of the subject-matter of said bills. (See clauses 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, and 16 of RULE XI.) The committee now has jurisdiction and charge of the following-named bills, viz: Deficiency; District of Columbia; Fortification; Legislative, Executive, and Judicial; Pension, and Sundry Civil appropriation bills.

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BALLOT.

"In all cases of ballot by the House the Speaker shall vote."-RULE I, clause 6.

In cases of ballot other than for committees.-RULE XL. The word here used in the original formation of the rule was election. On the 14th of January, 1840, it was changed to the word ballot. According to the practice, however, this rule is held to apply to all cases of election.

"No member shall remain by the Clerk's desk during the call of the roll or the counting of ballots."-RULE XIV, clause 7. There has been no instance for many years where a vote by ballot has been taken in the House, the Speaker having been elected by viva voce vote, the other officers by resolution, for which the minority usually offer a substitute, and the committees are appointed by the Speaker under RULE X. (See ELECTIONS and COMMITTEES.)

BANKING AND CURRENCY, COMMITTEE ON.

Number of members and duties of.-RULE X and RULE XI, elause 5.

This committee was created on the 2d of March, 1865, in the closing hours of the Thirty-eighth Congress, and its jurisdiction taken from that of the Committee on Ways and Means.

BAR OF THE HOUSE.

Formerly, in order to vote, members were required to be within the bar."

At the first session Thirty-fifth Congress (see Journal, p. 337), soon after the occupancy of the present hall, it was decided that, in order to be entitled to vote, a member must have been upon the floor of the hall, and not outside of any of the doors leading into it.

Now it is in order for a member to vote on a roll-call from any place within the hall" (except, of course, from the gal lery), but in order to be counted on a division of the House by a rising vote he must be within the railing in the rear of the ter circle of seats.

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BIENNIAL REGISTER.

Under the act of December 15, 1877, 2d session 45th Congress, providing for the printing and distribution of the Biennial Register, each member of Congress is entitled to two copies of said volume; and the date up to which the lists directed by sections 198 and 510 of the Revised Statutes is to be made is changed from September 30 to July 1 of each year in which a new Congress is to assemble.

BILLS.

(See RULE XXI, clauses 1, 2, and 3.)

(See also PRIVATE BILLS and PRIVATE BUSINESS.)

The enacting clause of all acts of Congress hereafter enacted shall be in the following form: "Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled."-R. S., sec. 7.

No enacting words shall be used in any section of an act of Congress except the first.-R. S, sec. 9.

Each section shall be numbered, and shall contain, as near as may be, a single proposition of enactment.-R. S., sec. 10. The style and title of acts making appropriations for the support of Government shall be as follows: "An act making appropriations (here insert the object) for the year ending June 30 (here insert the calendar year)."-R. S., sec. 11.

"All bills for raising revenue shall originate in the House of Representatives, but the Senate may propose or concur with amendments, as on other bills."-Const., 1, 75.

(See also REVENUE BILLS.)

For information in regard to bills reported from a committee, see COMMITTEES.

In the case of private bills under clause 1, RULE XXII, the first and second reading are had upon reference, or, in case of an original bill, when it is reported and referred to the Private Calendar.

After second reading.-RULE XXI, clause 1.

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The question of engrossment is put in this form, viz: “Shall the bill be engrossed and read a third time?" If it be negatived the bill is open to further debate and amendment unless the previous question has been ordered thereon, in which case it is usually recommitted, but if it be decided in the affirmative, and the bill is actually engrossed, or no question is made on its failure to be engrossed, the Speaker immediately directs the "third reading of the bill," and it is thereupon read (by title only) as a rule; but it is the right of any member at this stage to demand its reading in full. But if the question is made, and it be not actually engrossed, the bill goes over as unfinished business unless interrupted by a motion for reconsideration, or adjournment, or a recess, usually made in order to gain time for its engrossment. In the case of a Senate bill, the engrossment having already been made before it came to the House, the question which arises is, "Shall the bill be read a third time?" which being decided negatively the bill is subject to the conditions above stated with respect to a House bill, but being decided affirmatively, the bill is immediately read a third time, and the question then is on its passage.

Where the bill has a preamble, although there is no rule, and, until lately, no settled practice, defining the stage at which it is to be considered, it would seem to be most appropriate that its consideration should take place after the bill has been ordered to be engrossed and read a third time, and before the third reading takes place. By this course the bill can be engrossed either with or without the preamble, as the House shall have determined.

After the third reading of a bill, the question which next arises in course is, "Shall the bill pass?" At this stage the bill is not open to debate, nor amendable, the previous question having been ordered on its passage.-RULE XVII, clause 1.

It is not in order at this stage to have the bill again read in full (as it is not amendable) until the vote ordering its engrossment is reconsidered.

The bill having passed, and the title having been read, the Speaker usually states, "If there be no objection, this will remain the title of the bill." The title, however, is subject to amendment, and unless the previous question is ordered on it, s also debatable.

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