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nesses in his favor, and to have the Assistance of Counsel for his defence.
United States v. Cooledge, 1 Wh., 415; Ex parte Kearney, 7 Wh., 38; United States v. Mills, 7 Pet., 142; Barron v. City of Baltimore, 7 Pet., 243; Fox v. Ohio, 5 How., 410; Withers v. Buckley et al., 20 How.,84; Ex parte Milligan, 4 Wall., 2; Twitchell v. The Commonwealth, 7 Wall., 321; Miller v. The United States, 11 Wall., 268; United States v. Cook, 17 Wall., 168; United States v. Cruikshank et al., 92 U. S., 542.
In suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall exceed twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved, and no fact tried by a jury shall be otherwise re-examined in any Court of the United States, than according to the rules of the common law.
United States v. La Vengeance, 3 Dall., 297; Bank of Columbia v. Oakley, 4 Wh., 235; Parsons v. Bedford et al., 3 Pet., 433; Lessee of Livingston v. Moore et al., 7 Pet., 469; Webster v. Reid, 11 How., 437; State of Pennsylvania v. The Wheeling, &c., Bridge Company et al., 13 How., 518; The Justices v. Murray, 9 Wall., 274; Edwards v. Elliott et al., 21 Wall., 532; Pearson v. Yewdall, 95 U. S., 294; McElrath v. United States, 102 U. S., 426.
Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted.
Pervear v. Commonwealth, 5 Wall., 475.
The enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people.
Lessee of Livingston v. Moore et al., 7 Pet., 469.
The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people.
Chisholm, ex., v. State of Georgia, 2 Dall., 419; Hollingsworth et al. v. The State of Virginia, 3 Dall., 378; Martin v. Hunter's Lessee, 1 Wh.,
304; McCulloch v. State of Maryland, 4 Wh., 316; Anderson v. Dunn., 6 Wh., 204; Cohens v. Virginia, 6 Wh., 264; Osborn v. United States Bank, 9 Wh., 738; Buchler v. Finley, 2 Pet., 586; Ableman v. Booth, 21 How., 506; The Collector v. Day, 11 Wall., 113; Claflin v. Houseman, assignee, 93 U. S., 130; Inman Steamship Company v. Tinker, 94 U. S., 238.
The Judicial power of the United States shall not be construed to extend to any suit in law or equity, commenced or prosecuted against one of the United States by Citizens of another State, or by Citizens or Subjects of any Foreign State.
State of Georgia v. Brailsford et al., 2 Dall., 402; Chisholm, ex., v. State of Georgia, 2 Dall., 419; Hollingsworth et al. v. Virginia, 3 Dall., 378; Cohen v. Virginia, 6 Wh., 264; Osborn v. United States Bank, 9 Wh., 738; United States v. The Planters' Bank, 9 Wh., 904; The Governor of Georgia v. Juan Madrazo, I Pet., 110; Cherokee Nation v. State of Georgia, 5 Pet., I; Briscoe v. The Bank of the Commonwealth of Kentucky, 11 Pet., 257; Curran v. State of Arkansas et al., 15 How., 304; New Hampshire v. Louisiana, 108 U. S., 76.
The eleventh amendment to the Constitution of the United States was proposed to the legislatures of the several States by the Third Congress, on the 5th September, 1794; and was declared in a message from the President to Congress, dated the 8th of January, 1798, to have been ratified by the legislatures of three-fourths of the States.
The Electors shall meet in their respective states, and vote by ballot for President and Vice-President, one of whom, at least, shall not be an inhabitant of the same state with themselves; they shall name in their ballots the person voted for as President, and in distinct ballots the person voted for as Vice-President, and they shall make distinct lists of all persons voted for as President, and of all persons voted for as Vice-President, and of the number of votes for each, which lists they shall sign and certify, and transmit sealed to the seat of the government of the United States, directed to the President of the Senate; The President of the Senate shall, in presence of the Senate and House of Representatives, open all the certificates and
the votes shall then be counted;-The person having the greatest number of votes for President, shall be the President, if such number be a majority of the whole number of Electors appointed; and if no person have such majority, then from the persons having the highest numbers not exceeding three on the list of those voted for as President, the House of Representatives shall choose immediately, by ballot, the President. But in choosing the President, the votes shall be taken by states, the representation from each state having one vote; a quorum for this purpose shall consist of a member or members from two-thirds of the states, and a majority of all the states shall be necessary to a choice. And if the House of Representatives shall not choose a President whenever the right of choice shall devolve upon them, before the fourth day of March next following, then the VicePresident shall act as President, as in the case of the death or other constitutional disability of the President. The person having the greatest number of votes as Vice-President, shall be the Vice-President, if such number be a majority of the whole number of Electors appointed, and if no person have a majority, then from the two highest numbers on the list, the Senate shall choose the Vice-President; a quorum for the purpose shall consist of two-thirds of the whole number of Senators, and a majority of the whole number shall be necessary to a choice. But no person constitutionally ineligible to the office of President shall be eligible to that of Vice-President of the United States.
The twelfth amendment to the Constitution of the United States was proposed to the legislatures of the several States by the Eighth Congress, on the 12th of December, 1803, in lieu of the original third paragraph of the first section of the second article; and was declared in a proclamation of the Secretary of State, dated the 25th of September, 1804 to have been ratified by the legislatures of three-fourths of the States.
SECTION 1. Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly con
victed, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject tc their jurisdiction.
SECTION 2. Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.
Dred Scott v. Sanford, 19 How., 393; White v. Hart, 13 Wall., 646;
The thirteenth amendment to the Constitution of the United States was
SECTION 1. All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they reside. No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.
Strauder v. West Virginia, 100 U. S., 303; Virginia v. Rivers, 100 U. S., 313; Ex parte Virginia, 100 U. S. 339; Missouri v. Lewis, 101 U.S., 22; Civil Rights Cases, 109 U. S., 3; Louisiana v. New Orleans, 109 U. S., 285; Hurtado v. California, 110 U. S.. 516; Hagar v. Reclamation Dist., 111 U. S., 701.
SECTION 2. Representatives shall be apportioned among the several States according to their respective numbers, counting the whole number of persons in each State, excluding Indians not taxed. But when the right to vote at any election for the choice of electors for President and Vice President of the United States, Representatives in Congress, the Executive and Judicial officers of a State, or the members of the Legislature thereof, is denied to any of the male in
habitants of such State, being twenty-one years of age, and citizens of the United States, or in any way abridged, except for participation in rebellion, or other crime, the basis of representation therein shall be reduced in the proportion which the number of such male citizens shall bear to the whole number of male citizens twenty-one years of age in such State.
SECTION 3. No person shall be a Senator or Representative in Congress, or elector of President and Vice President, or hold any office, civil or military, under the United States, or under any State, who, having previously taken an oath, as a member of Congress, or as an officer of the United States, or as a member of any State legislature, or as an executive or judicial officer of any State, to support the Constitution of the United States, shall have engaged in insurrection or rebellion against the same, or given aid or comfort to the enemies thereof. But Congress may by a vote of two-thirds of each House, remove such disability.
SECTION 4. The validity of the public debt of the United States, authorized by law, including debts incurred for payment of pensions and bounties for services in suppressing insurrection or rebellion, shall not be questioned. But neither the United States nor any State shall assume or pay any debt or obligation incurred in aid of insurrection or rebellion against the United States, or any claim for the loss or emancipation of any slave; but all such debts, obligations and claims shall be held illegal and void.
SECTION 5. The Congress shall have power to enforce, by appropriate legislation, the provisions of this article.
Crandall v. the State of Nevada, 6 Wall.. 35; Paul v. Virginia, 8 Wall., 168; Ward v. Maryland, 12 Wall., 418; Slaughter-house Cases, 16 Wall., 36; Bradwell v. The State, 16 Wall., 130; Bartemeyer v. Iowa, 18 Wall., 129; Minor v. Happersett, 21 Wall., 162; Walker v. Sauvinet, 92 U. S., 90; Kennard v. Louisiana, ex rel. Morgan, 92 U. S., 480; United States v. Cruikshank, 92 U. S., 542; Munn v. Illinois, 94 U. S., 113.
The fourteenth amendment to the Constitution of the United States was proposed to the legislatures of the several States: by the Thirty-ninth Con