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shall be so construed as to Prejudice any Claims of the United States,

or of any particular State.

McCulloch v. State of Maryland, 4 Wh., 316; American Insurance Company v. Canter, I Pet., 511; United States v. Gratiot et al., 14 Pet., 526; United States v. Rogers, 4 How., 567; Cross et al. v. Harrison, 16 How., 164; Muckey et al. v. Coxe, 18 How., 100; Gibson v. Chouteau, 13 Wall., 92; Clinton v. Englebert, 13 Wall., 434; Beall v. New Mexico, 16 Wall., 535.

SECTION. 4. The United States shall guarantee to every State in this Union a Republican Form of Government, and shall protect each of them against Invasion; and on Application of the Legislature, or of the Executive (when the Legislature cannot be convened) against domestic Violence.

Luther v. Borden, 7 How., I; Texas v. White, 7 Wall., 700.


The Congress, whenever two thirds of both Houses shall deem it necessary, shall propose Amendments to this Constitution, or, on the Application of the Legislatures of two thirds of the several States, shall call a Convention for proposing Amendments, which, in either Case, shall be valid to all Intents and Purposes, as Part of this Constitution, when ratified by the Legislatures of three fourths of the several States, or by Conventions in three fourths thereof, as the one or the other Mode of Ratification may be proposed by the Congress; Provided that no Amendment which may be made prior to the Year One thousand eight hundred and eight shall in any Manner affect the first and fourth Clauses in the Ninth Section of the first Article; and that no State, without its Consent, shall be deprived of its equal Suffrage in the Senate.


1 All Debts contracted and Engagements entered into, before the Adoption of this Constitution, shall be as valid against the United States under this Constitution, as under the Confederation.

"This Constitution, and the Laws of the United States which shall be made in Pursuance thereof; and all Treaties made, or which shall be made, under the Authority of the United States, shall be the supreme Law of the Land; and the Judges in every State shall be bound thereby, any Thing in the Constitution or Laws of any State to the Contrary notwithstanding.

Hayburn's case, 2 Dall., 409; Ware v. Hylton, 3 Dall., 199; Calder and wife v. Bull and wife, 3 Dall., 386; Marbury v. Madison, I Cr., 137; Chirac v. Chirac, 2 Wh., 259; McCulloch v. The State of Maryland, 4 Wh., 316; Society v. New Haven, 8 Wh., 464; Gibbons v. Ogden, 9 Wh., 1; Foster and Elam v. Neilson, 2 Pet., 253; Buckner v. Finley, 2 Pet., 586; Worcester v. State of Georgia, 6 Pet., 515; Kennett et al. v. Chambers, 14 How., 38; Dodge v. Woolsey, 18 How., 331; State of New York v. Dibble, 21 How., 366; Ableman v. Booth and United States v. Booth, 21 How., 506; Sinnot v. Davenport, 22 How., 227; Foster v. Davenport, 22 How., 244; Haver v. Yaker, 9 Wall., 32.

3 The Senators and Representatives before mentioned, and the Members of the several State Legislatures, and all executive and judicial Officers, both of the United States and of the several States, shall be bound by Oath or Affirmation, to support this Constitution; but no religious Test shall ever be required as a Qualification to any Office or public Trust under the United States.

Ex parte Garland, 4 Wall., 333.


The Ratification of the Conventions of nine States, shall be sufficient for the Establishment of this Constitution between the States so ratifying the Same.

DONE in Convention by the Unanimous Consent of the States present the Seventeenth Day of September in the Year of our Lord one thousand seven hundred and Eighty seven and of the Independance of the United States of America the Twelfth In Witness whereof We have hereunto subscribed our Names,


Presidt, and Deputy from Virginia

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Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances.

Terret et al. v. Taylor et al., 9 Cr., 43; Vidal et al. v. Girard et al., 2 How., 127; Ex parte Garland, 4 Wall., 333; United States v. Cruikshank et al., 92 U. S., 542; Reynolds v. United States, 98 U. S., 145.


A well regulated Militia, being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear Arms, shall not be infringed.


No Soldier shall, in time of peace be quartered in any house, without the consent of the Owner, nor in time of war, but in a manner to be prescribed by law.


The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be

*The first ten amendments to the Constitution of the United States were proposed to the legislatures of the several States by the First Congress, on the 25th of September, 1789. They were ratified by the following States, and the notifications of ratification by the governors thereof were successively communicated by the President to Congress: New Jersey, November 20, 1789; Maryland, December 19, 1789; North Carolina, December 22, 1789; South Carolina, January 19, 1790; New Hampshire, January 25, 1790; Delaware, January 28, 1790; Pennsylvania, March 10, 1790; New York, March 27, 1790; Rhode Island, June 15, 1790; Vermont, November 3, 1791, and Virginia, December 15, 1791. There is no evidence on the journals of Congress that the legislatures of Connecticut, Georgia, and Massachusetts ratified them.

violated, and no Warrants shall issue, but up on probable cause, sup ported by Oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized.

Smith v. State of Maryland, 18 How., 71; Murray's Lessee et al. v. Hoboken Land and Improvement Company, 18 How., 272; Ex parte Milligan, 4 Wall., 2.


No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a Grand Jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the Militia, when in actual service in time of War or public danger; nor shall any person be subject for the same offence to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled in any Criminal Case to be a witness against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use, without just compensation.

United States v. Perez, 9 Wh., 579; Barron v. The City of Baltimore, 7 Pet., 243; Fox v. Ohio, 5 How., 410; West River Bridge Company v. Dix et al., 6 How., 507; Mitchell v. Harmony, 13 How., 115; Moore, ex., v. The People of the State of Illinois, 14 How., 13; Murray's Lessee et al. v. Hoboken Land and Improvement Company, 18 How., 272; Dynes v. Hoover, 20 How., 65; Withers v. Buckley et al., 20 How., 84; Gilman v. The City of Sheboygan, 2 Black, 510; Ex parte Milligan, 4 Wall., 2; Twitchell v. The Commonwealth, 7 Wall., 321; Hepburn v. Griswold, 8 Wall., 603; Miller v. United States, 11 Wall., 268; Legal Tender Cases, 12 Wall., 457; Pumpelly v. Green Bay Company, 13 Wall., 166; Osborn v. Nicholson, 13 Wall., 654; Ex parte Lange, 18 Wall., 163; Kohl et al. v. United States, 91 U. S., 367.


In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the State and district wherein the crime shall have been committed, which district shall have been previously ascertained by law, and to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation; to be confronted with the witnesses against him; to have compulsory process for obtaining Wit

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