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emit Bills of Credit; make any Thing but gold and silver Coin a Tender in Payment of Debts; pass any Bill of Attainder, ex post facto Law, or Law impairing the Obligation of Contracts,3 or grant any Title of Nobility.

Calder and wife v. Bull and wife, 3 Dall., 386; 3 Fletcher v. Peck, 6 Cr., 87; State of New Jersey v. Wilson, 7 Cr., 164; Sturgis v. Crowningshield, 4 Wh., 122; McMillan v. McNeil, 4 Wh., 209; 3 Dartmouth, College v. Woodward, 4 Wh., 518; 3Owings v. Speed, 5 Wh., 420; 3 Farmers and Mechanics' Bank v. Smith, 6 Wh., 131; Green et al. v. Biddle, 8 Wh., 1; 3Ogden v. Saunders, 12 Wh., 213; 3 Mason v. Haile, 12 Wh., 370; Satterlee v. Matthewson, 2 Pet., 380; Hart v. Lamphire, 3 Pet., 280; Craig et al. v. State of Missouri, 4 Pet., 410; Providence Bank v. Billings and Pitman, 4 Pet., 514; Byrne v. State of Missouri, 8 Pet., 40; Watson v. Mercer, 8 Pet., 88; 3 Mumma v. Potomac Company, 8 Pet., 281; 3 Beers v. Haughton, 9 Pet., 329; 'Briscoe et al. v. The Bank of the Commonwealth of Kentucky, 11 Pet., 257; The Proprietors of Charles River Bridge v. The Proprietors of Warren Bridge, 11 Pet., 420; 3Armstrong v. The Treasurer of Athens Company, 16 Pet., 281; 3 Bronson v. Kinzie et al., 1 How., 311; McCracken v. Hayward, 2 How., 608; Gordon v. Appeal Tax Court, 3 How., 133; 3State of Maryland v. Baltimore and Ohio R. R. Co., 3 How., 534; Neil, Moore & Co. v. State of Ohio, 3 How., 720; Cook v. Moffatt, 5 How., 295; Planters' Bank v. Sharp et al., 6 How., 301; 3 West River Bridge Company v. Dix et al., 6 How., 507; Crawford et al. v. Branch Bank of Mobile, 7 How., 279; Woodruff v. Trapnall, 10 How., 190; Paup et al. v. Drew, 10 How., 218; 2,3 Baltimore and Susquehanna R. R. Co. v. Nesbitt et al., 10 How., 395; 3 Butler et al. v. Pennsylvania, 10 How., 402; Darrington et al. v. The Bank of Alabama, 13 How., 12; Richmond, &c., R. R. Co. v. The Louise R. R. Co., 13 How., 71; Trustees for Vincennes University v. State of Indiana, 14 How., 268; 3 Curran v. State of Arkansas et al., 15 How., 304; State Bank of Ohio v. Knoop, 16 How., 369; Carpenter et al. v. Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, 17 How., 456; Dodge v. Woolsey, 18 How., 331; 3 Beers v. State of Arkan. sas, 20 How., 527; 3 Aspinwall et al. v. Commissioners of County of Daviess, 22 How., 364; Rector of Christ Church, Philadelphia, v. County of Philadelphia, 24 How., 300; 3 Howard v. Bugbee, 24 How., 461; 3Jefferson Branch Bank v. Skelley, 1 Black, 436; 3 Franklin Branch Bank v. State of Ohio, I Black, 474; 3 Trustees of the Wabash and Erie Canal Company v. Beers, 2 Black, 448; Gilman v. City of Sheboygan, 2 Black, 510; Bridge Proprietors v. Hoboken Company, 1 Wall., 116; 3 Hawthorne v. Calef, 2 Wall., 10; The Binghamton Bridge, 3 Wall., 51; The Turnpike Company v. The State, 3 Wall., 210; Locke v. City of New Orleans, 4 Wall., 172; Railroad Company v. Rock, 4 Wall., 177; 3 Cummings v. State of Missouri, 4 Wall., 277; o Ex parte Garland, 4 Wall., 333; Von Hoffman v. City of Quincy, 4 Wall., 535; Mulligan v. Corbin, 7 Wall., 487; 3 Furman v. Nichol, 8 Wall., 44; 3 Home of the Friendless v. Rouse, 8 Wall., 430; 3 The Washington University v. Rouse, 8 Wall., 439; Butz v. City of Muscatine, 8 Wall., 575; 3 Drehman v. Stifle, 8 Wall., 595; Hepburn v. Griswold, 8 Wall., 603; Gut v. The State, 9 Wall., 35; Railroad Company v. McClure, 10 Wall., 511; 3Parker v. Davis, 12

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Wall., 457; Curtis v. Whiting, 13 Wall., 68; Fennsylvania College Cases, 13 Wall., 190; Wilmington R. R. v. Reid, sheriff, 13 Wall., 264; Salt Company v. East Saginaw, 13 Wall., 373; 3White v. Hart, 13 Wall., 646; 3Osborn v. Nicholson et al., 13 Wall., 654; Railroad Company v. Johnson, 15 Wall., 195; 3 Case of the State Tax on foreign-held bonds, 15 Wall., 300; 3 Tomlinson v. Jessup, 15 Wall., 454; 3Tomlinson v. Branch, 15 Wall., 460; Miller v. The State, 15 Wall., 478; 3 Holyoke Company v. Lyman, 15 Wall., 500; 3 Gunn v. Barry, 15 Wall., 610; 3 Humphrey v. Pegues, 16 Wall., 244; 3 Walker v. Whitehead, 16 Wall., 314; 3 Sohn v. Waterson, 17 Wall., 596; 3 Barings v. Dabney, 19 Wall., 1; 3 Head v. The University, 19 Wall., 526; 3 Pacific R. R. Co. v. Maguire, 20 Wall, 36; 3Garrison v. The City of New York, 21 Wall., 196; 3Ōchiltree v. The Railroad Company, 21 Wall., 249; 3 Wilmington, &c., Railroad v. King, ex., 91 U. S., 3; 3County of Moultrie v. Rockingham Ten Cent Savings Bank, 92 U. S., 631; 3 Home Insurance Company v. City Council of Augusta, 93 U. S., 116; West Wisconsin R. R. Co. v. Supervisors, 93 U. S., 595; Murray v. Charleston, 96 U. S., 432; Edwards v. Kearzey, 96 U. S., 595; Keith v. Clark, 97 Ú. S., 454; Railroad Co. v. Georgia, 98 U. S., 359; Railroad Co. v. Tennessee, 101 U. S., 337; Wright. Nagle, 101 U. S., 791; Stone v. Mississippi, 101 U. S., 814; Railroad Co. v. Alabama, 101 U. S., 832; Louisiana v. New Orleans, 101 U. S., 203; Hall v. Wisconsin, 103 U. S., 5; Pennyman's case, 103 U. S., 714; Guaranty Co. v. Board of Liquidation, 105 U. S., 622; Greenwood v. Freight Co., 105 U. S., 13; Kring v. Missouri, 107 U. S., 221; Louisiana v. New Orleans, 109 U. S., 285; Gilfillan v. Union Canal Co., 109 U. S., 401; Nelson v. St. Martin's Parish, 111 U. S., 716.

"No State shall, without the Consent of the Congress, lay any Imposts or Duties on Imports or Exports, except what may be absolutely necessary for executing it's inspection Laws: and the net Produce of all Duties and Imposts, laid by any State on Imports or Exports, shall be for the Use of the Treasury of the United States; and all such Laws shall be subject to the Revision and Controul of the Congress.

McCulloch v. State of Maryland, 4 Wh., 316; Gibbons v. Ogden, 9 Wh., 1; Brown v. The State of Maryland, 12 Wh., 419; Mager v. Grima et al., 8 How., 490; Cooley v. Board of Wardens of Port of Philadelphia et al., 12 How., 299; Almy v. State of California, 24 How., 169; License Tax Cases, 5 Wall., 462; Crandall v. State of Nevada, 6 Wall., 35; Waring v. The Mayor, 8 Wall., 110; Woodruff v. Perham, 8 Wall., 123; Hinson v. Lott, 8 Wall., 148; State Tonnage Tax Cases, 12 Wall., 204; State tax on railway gross receipts, 15 Wall., 284; Inman Steamship Company_v. Tinker, 94 U. S., 238; Cook v. Pennsylvania, 97 U. S., 566; Packet Co. v. Keokuk, 95, U. Š., 80; People v. Compagnie Général Transatlantique, 107 U. S., 59.

No State shall, without the Consent of Congress, lay any Duty of Tonnage, keep Troops, or Ships of War in time of Peace, enter

into any Agreement or Compact with another State, or with a foreign Power, or engage in War, unless actually invaded, or in such imminent Danger as will not admit of delay.

Green v. Biddle, 8 Wh., 1; Poole et al. v. The Lessee of Fleeger et al., 11 Pet., 185; Cooley v. Board of Wardens of Port of Philadelphia et al., 12 How., 299; Peete v. Morgan, 19 Wall., 581; Cannon v. New Orleans, 20 Wall., 577; Inman Steamship Company v. Tinker, 94 U. S., 238; Packet Co. v. St. Louis, 100 U. S., 423; Packet Co. v. Keokuk, 95 U. S., 80; Vicksbury v. Tobin, 100 U. S., 430; Packet Co. v. Catlettsburg, 105 U. S., 559.


SECTION. I. 'The executive Power shall be vested in a President of the United States of America. He shall hold his Office during the Term of four Years, and, together with the Vice President, chosen for the same Term, be elected, as follows:

Each State shall appoint, in such Manner as the Legislature thereof may direct, a Number of Electors, equal to the whole Number of Senators and Representatives to which the State may be entitled in the Congress: but no Senator or Representative, or Person holding an Office of Trust or Profit under the United States, shall be appointed an Elector.

Chisholin, ex., v. Georgia, 2 Dall., 419; Leitensdorfer et al. v. Webb, 20 How., 176; Ex parte Siebold, 100 U. S., 271.

["The electors shall meet in their respective States, and vote by ballot for two Persons, of whom one at least shall not be an Inhabitant of the same State with themselves. And they shall make a List of all the Persons voted for, and of the Number of Votes for each; which List they shall sign and certify, and transmit sealed to the Seat of the Government of the United States, directed to the President of the Senate. The President of the Senate shall, in the Presence of the Senate and House of Representatives, open all the Certificates, and the Votes shall then be counted. The Person having the greatest Number of Votes shall be the President, if such Number be a Majority of the whole Number of Electors appointed; and if there be more than one who have such Majority, and have an equal Number of Votes, then the House of Representatives shall immediately chuse by Ballot one of them for President; and if no Person have a Majority, then from the five highest on the List the said House shall in like Manner chuse the President. But in chusing the President, the Votes shall be taken by States, the Representation from each State having one Vote; A quorum for this Purpose shall consist of a Member or Members

from two-thirds of the States, and a Majority of all the States shall be necessary to a Choice. In every Case, after the Choice of the President, the Person having the greatest Number of Votes of the Electors shall be the Vice President. But if there should remain two or more who have equal Votes, the Senate shall chuse from them by Ballot the Vice-President."] This clause has been superseded by the twelfth amendment, p. 64.

3 The Congress may determine the Time of chusing the Electors, and the Day on which they shall give their Votes; which Day shall be the same throughout the United States.

'No Person except a natural born Citizen, or a Citizen of the United States, at the time of the Adoption of this Constitution, shall be eligible to the Office of President; neither shall any Person be eligible to that Office who shall not have attained to the Age of thirty five Years, and been fourteen Years a Resident within the United States.

English v. The Trustees of the Sailors' Snug Harbor, 3 Pet., 99.

"In Case of the Removal of the President from Office, or of his Death, Resignation, or Inability to discharge the Powers and Duties of the said Office, the same shall devolve on the Vice President, and the Congress may by Law provide for the Case of Removal, Death, Resignation or Inability, both of the President and Vice President, declaring what Officer shall then act as President, and such Officer shall act accordingly, until the Disability be removed, or a President shall be elected.

The President shall, at stated Times, receive for his Services, a Compensation, which shall neither be encreased nor diminished during the Period for which he shall have been elected, and he shall not receive within that Period any other Emolument from the United States, or any of them.

7 Before he enter on the Execution of his Office, he shall take the following Oath or Affirmation:-"I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully execute the Office of President of the United States, and will to the best of my Ability, preserve, protect and defend the Constitution of the United States."

SECTION. 2. The President shall be Commander in Chief of the Army and Navy of the United States, and of the Militia of the severa! States, when called into the actual Service of the United States; he may require the Opinion, in writing, of the principal Officer in each of the executive Departments, upon any Subject relating to the Duties of their respective Offices, and he shall have Power to grant Reprieves and Pardons for Offences against the United States, except in Cases of Impeachment.

United States v. Wilson, 7 Pet., 150; Ex parte William Wells, 18 How., 307; Ex parte Garland, 4 Wall., 333; Armstrong's Foundry, 6 Wall., 766; The Grape Shot, 9 Wall., 129; United States v. Padelford, 9 Wall., 542; United States v. Klein, 13 Wall., 128; Armstrong v. The United States, 13 Wall., 152; Pargoud v. The United States, 13 Wall., 156; Hamilton v. Dillin, 21 Wall., 73; Mechanics and Traders' Bank v. Union Bank, 22 Wall., 276; Lamar, ex., v. Browne et al., 92 U. S., 187; Wallach et al. v. Van Riswick, 92 U. S., 202.

" He shall have Power, by and with the Advice and Consent of the Senate, to make Treaties, provided two-thirds of the Senators present concur; and he shall nominate, and by and with the Advice and Consent of the Senate, shall appoint Ambassadors, other public Ministers and Consuls, Judges of the supreme Court, and all other Officers of the United States, whose Appointments are not herein otherwise provided for, and which shall be established by Law: but the Congress may by Law vest the Appointment of such inferior Officers, as they think proper, in the President alone, in the Courts of Law, or in the Heads of Departments.

Ware v. Hylton et al., 3 Dall., 199; Marbury v. Madison, I Cr., 137; United States v. Kirkpatrick, 9 Wh., 720; American Insurance Company v. Canter (356 bales cotton), 1 Pet., 511; Foster and Elam v. Neilson, 2 Pet., 253; Cherokee Nation v. State of Georgia, 5 Pet., 1; Patterson v. Gwinn et al., 5 Pet., 233; Worcester v. State of Georgia, 6 Pet., 515; City of New Orleans v. De Armas et al., 9 Pet., 224; Holden v. Joy, 17 Wall., 211.

3 The President shali have Power to fill up all Vacancies that may happen during the Recess of the Senate, by granting Commissions which shall expire at the End of their next Session.

The United States v. Kirkpatrick et al., 9 Wh., 720.

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