Environmental Policy: Transnational Issues and National Trends

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Lynton Keith Caldwell, Robert V. Bartlett
Greenwood Publishing Group, 1997 - 237 pages
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This edited collection provides a cross-sectional review of environmental legislation and administration in the United States, with comparative chapters relating to Canada and New Zealand. The experts look at a variety of environmental issues that create policy problems, and while the book offers no blueprint or prognosis of environmental policy in the twenty-first century, it does offer insights into trends that will influence the future shape of that policy.

The book is prefaced by an overview of the environment as a problem for policy by Lynton K. Caldwell, who has been credited with inventing the term environmental policy. Experts examine the role of risk analysis in policy making; the transnational issues associated with NAFTA and GATT are discussed; and the efforts of the Environmental Protection Agency to integrate policy and administration are described. The perspective of the authors is transnational, with several chapters focusing primarily on U.S. policy.

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Contents

1 Environment as a Problem for Policy
1
Implications for Public Management
19
3 Rethinking the Role of Risk Assessment in Environmental Policymaking
37
4 The NAFTA and the North American Agreement on Environmental Cooperation
61
5 World Trade the GATT and the Environment
87
6 Policy Regimes for International Waste Trade
113
7 Boundary Issues and Canadian Environmental Legislation
131
The New Zealand Experiment
157
9 Prospects for Integrated Environmental Policy
173
Public Attitudes Toward Environmental Issues
201
Index
225
About the Contributors
235
Copyright

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Page 82 - Nations and the principles of international law, the sovereign right to exploit their own resources pursuant to their own environmental and developmental policies, and the responsibility to ensure that activities within their jurisdiction or control do not cause damage to the environment of other States or of areas beyond the limits of national jurisdiction...
Page 84 - Measures taken to combat climate change, including unilateral ones, should not constitute a means of arbitrary or unjustifiable discrimination or a disguised restriction on international trade.
Page 109 - No prohibitions or restrictions other than duties, taxes or other charges, whether made effective through quotas, import or export licenses or other measures, shall be instituted or maintained by any contracting party on the importation of any product of the territory of any other contracting party...
Page 24 - The general rule at least is that while property may be regulated to a certain extent, if regulation goes too far it will be recognized as a taking.
Page 97 - Subject to the requirement that such measures are not applied in a manner which would constitute a means of arbitrary or unjustifiable discrimination between countries where the same conditions prevail, or a disguised restriction on international trade, nothing in this Agreement shall be construed to prevent the adoption or enforcement by any contracting party of measures: (a) necessary to protect public morals; (b) necessary to protect human, animal or plant life or health...
Page 97 - Agreement shall be construed to prevent the adoption or enforcement by any contracting party of measures... (b) necessary to protect human, animal or plant life or health... (g) relating to the conservation of exhaustible natural resources if such measures are made effective in conjunction with restrictions on domestic production or consumption ..." 7 The text of Article 2 SPS Agreement states in relevant part: 1.
Page 70 - States shall immediately notify other States of any natural disasters or other emergencies that are likely to produce sudden harmful effects on the environment of those States. Every effort shall be made by the international community to help States so afflicted.
Page 198 - The nature and extent of lead poisoning in children in the United States: a report to Congress.
Page 84 - Trade policy measures for environmental purposes should not constitute a means of arbitrary or unjustifiable discrimination or a disguised restriction on international trade. Unilateral actions to deal with environmental challenges outside the jurisdiction of the importing country should be avoided.
Page 31 - ... the past or present handling, storage, treatment, transportation, or disposal of any solid or hazardous waste which may present an imminent and substantial endangerment...

About the author (1997)

LYNTON K. CALDWELL is the Arthur F. Bentley Professor of Political Science Emeritus and Professor of Public and Environmental Affairs at Indiana University.

ROBERT V. BARTLETT is Associate Professor of Political Science at Purdue University.

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