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Geo. E. Benson, M. D., Geo. P. Salmon, M. D., A. P. Cook, M. D., C. P. Cook, M. D., F. F. Cochren, M. D., H. Lyle Smith, M. D.

The secretary was directed to reply and to state that the subject had been brought to the attention of the Board.

Communications were submitted from Hon. Dr. M. M. Fenner, chairman of assembly committee on public health, relating to explosive oils and to vivisection. It was

Resolved, That the sanitary committee be directed to report as soon as convenient upon the cause and prevention of accidents from kerosene and similar oils.

Hon. M. Phillips, of Orleans county appeared before the board to ask what action could be taken for abating a nuisance caused by the Erie canal near the village of Holly, in that region of the town of Murray. Malarial fever and its associated evils are attributed to the obstruction of drainage. In reply the Board advised Mr. Phillips that a statement of the case should be made directly by the town authorities, to the State Engineer, and also to the Governor of the State. The Secretary was advised by the president and members to obtain medical facts directly from the physicians in that region. He said that he would do so. On motion of Mr. Brooks it was

Resolved:-That the State Board of Health shall offer to supply the towns and counties with blank forms for the registry of births, marriages, deaths, burials, at net cost, and that the proper local authorities be notified of this action.

The president submitted communications from citizens of Auburn asking advice upon practical questions of sewerage in that city, and, on his motion, the following resolution was adopted:

WHEREAS, Citizens of Auburn have requested the opinion of the State Board of Health in relation to the proper location for public sewers in that city, therefore

Resolved: That the secretary of this Board be authorized to express to such citizens and others whom it may concern, that, in the opinion of the State Board of Health, no public sewer should be constructed beneath private dwellings, manufactories, or public buildings, or where avoidable, through private grounds; but in every instance along streets or public throughfares.

Resolved: That the committee on Registration and Vital Statistics is hereby authorized to have three registers made for immediately commencing the registration of deaths, births and marriages, in the State Bureau of Vital Statistics.

WHEREAS, Small-pox is now prevailing to a dangerous extent in many towns and cities in the State, and

WHEREAS, Except in New York city, the cases of this disease are not published immediately, but intentionally concealed, therefore

Resolved: That in any amendments which may be made to the law creating this Board, a section should be added making it a misdemeanor for the Health Officer, or Sanitary Superintendent of any city, town or village to neglect to report to the Secretary of this Board any case of small-pox occurring in his district within three days of its coming to his knowledge.

Resolved:-That the law should also provide for requiring the attending physician to report cases to the Health Officer and Sanitary Superintendent. The discussion of the merits of the Pharmacy Bill for the

better regulation of the retail and prescription business in articles used in medicine was taken up, and on motion it was

Resolved: That in the opinion of the State Board of Health it is very desirable that laws for the regulation of the practice of Pharmacy and the sale of poisons should be adopted for the purpose of protecting the public health from incompetent Pharmacists and from the careless sale of poisons.

Resolved: That the form of public notice by School Officers, which was adopted by the School Board, district eight, of Amsterdam, Montgomery county, be printed as a sample by this Board to be issued by the secretary to all school districts in the State as illustrating an easy method of securing public attention to the duty of vaccination in accordance with the statute of 1860.*

Resolved: That in legislation proposed, the Supervisors of the towns of the State be authorized and required to appoint Boards of Health in their respective towns, and that in towns where there are villages the trustees shall make the appointment of the local Board of Health, whose work shall be confined to the territory known as the village. And in cities (except New York and Brooklyn) the Mayor and Common Council shall make the appointments and that in no case shall a member of the Board of Health be selected from the city, county, town or other local officers; and that in each such Board of Health there shall be at least one physician.

Resolved: That in all Boards of Health it shall be the duty of the Health Board to appoint and define the work and power of the health officer.



Six members in attendance.


of committee on Effluvium Nuisances.

committee, presented the report.

to hear and act upon report Dr. Delavan, chairman of the

The report was accepted and adopted. It was

Resolved:-That in the opinion of this Board the report of the special committee upon the stench nuisance complained of in the city of New York clearly establishes the fact that the complaints are well founded, that the odors emanate chiefly from the portions of Kings and Queens counties bordering upon Newtown creek, and that they are caused by carelessness in the management of the business of refining petroleum, discharging the refuse from the oil refineries, the handling of sludge acid, the making of cream of tartar, the manufacture of superphosphate fertilizers by means of sulphuric acid, the rendering of fat, the boiling and burning of bones, the manufacture of ammonia and the transportation and storage of manure.

Resolved:-That in the opinion of the Board the managers of the Empire, Standard and Astral oil refineries, and the owners of the cream of tartar factory, have shown themselves to be commendably active in their efforts to control all sources of nuisance, and with the advice of competent experts have introduced improvements which accomplish

* See [No. 41] in series of Sanitary Papers, p. 121 of this report.

that result; therefore the Board urges upon the Governor the importance of requiring the owners of other oil refineries to adopt the same or other equally effective methods of accomplishing the same results.

Resolved:-That in the opinion of this Board no treatment or utilization of the sludge of the oil refineries should be permitted in the neighborhood of Newtown creek, nor should any portion of it be discharged into the waters of the creek. It should be removed in closed tanks entirely beyond the populous districts, without dilution or needless exposure to the air.

Resolved: That the manufacture of super-phosphates, from refuse and putrid animal matters, as now conducted, is a source of emanations which should not be endured, nor should such putrid materials be stored or transported in open vessels.

Resolved: That the improper rendering of fat, and the boiling and burning of bones, and the manufacture of ammonia constitute nuisances of great magnitude, which can be easily abated by the adoption of approved apparatus already in use in many establishments.

Resolved:-That the removal of manure from the large cities and its transportation to the farms where it is finally utilized without annoyance to the residents of the localities where it is produced, or through which it passes, is a problem involving many serious difficulties, but the Board is unanimous in the opinion that it should not be allowed to accumulate in the neighborhood of crowded localities.

On motion it was

Resolved:-That the report and resolutions thereon be recommitted to the special committee with instructions to lay before the Governor the resolutions and such facts connected with the report as may be deemed expedient.

Mr. Brooks submitted the following statement in regard to the KillVon-Kull nuisances:

"The attention of the board of health having been called to the unhealthy and unsightly condition of things growing out of the factories on the Kill-Von-Kull- the navigable and much used stream of water which separates the north shore of Staten Island from the opposite shore in the State of New Jersey, respectfully asks the Governor of the State of New York to communicate to the authorities of New Jersey the following facts:


Ist:-That along the waters on the New Jersey shore especially on the shore opposite to New Brighton and West New Brighton,― nuisances and offenses emanate from the oil refineries and factories of very serious injury to the comfort of the whole people, on the New York shore, and at times from the effluvium in the air and the contaminations in the water affecting the health of the people. When the wind - is in the direction of the island, the offensive odors extend for two or three miles inland, compelling at times the closing of windows and preventing the proper and necessary ventilation of private dwellings.

"2nd:-The water is often covered with oil flowing from the factories into the river and reaching the opposite shore and destroying all pleasure and cleanliness formerly enjoyed from the use of public and private bathing places.

"3rd:-The smell from the gases and sludge coming from the factories is not only personally offensive and especially affecting the sensi

bilities of sick and nervous people, but the material and contents of buildings all along the shore are discolored from the same cause.

"4th:-The examination and experience of the New York State Board of Health, and of the Boards of Health in the cities of New York and Brooklyn, and elsewhere in and beyond the State of New York, have demonstrated the possibility and the economy of removing or abating all these nuisances. The worst of them composed of sludge should be removed, and all existing nuisances relating to gases, oil and smoke can be abated to the extent of at least ninety per cent, and this without loss to the owners of the property which produces the nuisances. The proper combustion of coal and other fuel, and the proper regulation and control of gases by consumption is the easy, certain and effective remedy for what now results in so much personal discomfort and so much popular indignation.

"5th:-Most of the buildings on the north shore of Staten Island are private residences, occupied by families long residing on the island, and from the causes here named, and for the first time their homes have been made uncomfortable, and in the case of many of their inmates unhealthy, from causes beyond their reach, because wholly under the control of a neighboring State and people. They therefore earnestly and respectfully appeal to the authorities and people to remove this great evil from their midst, and the State Board of Health respectfully asks the Governor of the State to aid the State Board and the people of the village of New Brighton in asking the neighborly interference of the State of New Jersey to remove a public affliction wholly under their control." On motion it was unanimously

Resolved:-That the statement here submitted by Mr. Brooks be transmitted to the Governor,

The secretary submitted to the Board a petition and papers referred by the Governor to the State Board of Health for examination, from the proprietors of the Oriental Hotel, Manhattan Beach, Coney Island, and suggested that suitable action be taken in reference thereto.

On motion it was

Resolved:-That the special committee on effluvium nuisances be directed to continue its investigation in the direction indicated by the above petition, and report its findings to the annual meeting of the Board in May.

Prof. Waller submitted his report on the chemical nature of effluvia produced by certain manufacturing operations.

On motion it was unanimously

Resolved:-That the committee having charge of the subject lay the report before the Governor with the paper of Prof. Waller incorporated inviting special attention to the expert inquiries that had attended the investigation suggesting the transmission of these documents to the Legislature for publication.

Ön motion it was

Resolved: That under the direction which the president shall give to the committee on drainage, sewerage and topography of which he is a member, it shall proceed to take whatever action may be deemed necessary in the following places: Auburn, Geneva, Watkins and the abandoned canal regions, Hudson City, Croton Falls, Cortlandttown and the Yonkers district.

The secretary called attention to the necessity of the State Board

of Health taking action in regard to answering the question now urged upon its attention: Shall it be considered safe for the public health of the localities concerned, and of the State, that the lake-level of Seneca lake should be raised to any height exceeding its mean natural level as marked by the old monuments along the shore?

After discussing the question it was'unanimously

Resolved:-That the committee on sanitary drainage, sewerage and topography, through the president and secretary, give such temporary advice as may be in their judgment necessary, based on accurately stated facts, concerning the proposed raising of the level of Seneca lake, as respects the malarial grounds that may be caused by any considerable elevation of that level.

The secretary called attention to the malarial district in the town of Murray, Orleans county, in regard to which Hon. M. A. Phillips, member of assembly from that county, was heard at the last meeting of the Board. He explained his recent visit to the place in company with an assistant engineer of the canal service, and suggested that the president and secretary could safely give the opinion that Mr. Phillips sought, namely that the swamp between Holley and Hulberton, south of Mr. Cole's property, should be immediately drained, Adjourned.


All members in attendance except the attorney-general.

The secretary submitted a statement of the Board's work during the "past year and suggested that advantage be taken of the opportunity which Prof. Gardiner would have while in Europe to make observations for the use of this Board in regard to different systems of sewerage construction and sewer outflow in cities and villages.

On motion it was

Resolved: That in view of the practical importance of drainage and sewerage improvements as illustrated in England and other parts of Europe, Prof. Gardiner is hereby requested and commissioned to make whatever observations and investigations he can concerning this subject during his tour in Europe and to report the results thereof to this board.

Prof. Gardiner was requested by the president to suggest a few names of engineers best known and approved by him to aid the Board during his absence, as occasion may require under the resolution adopted at the last quarterly meeting. Prof. Gardiner named five such civil engi


On call of the president the reports of the standing committees were made.

Mr. Brooks also reported that the two houses of the Legislature had inserted in the supply bill an appropriation of twenty thousand for the expenses of the Board for the fiscal year commencing on the first of October next.

The report of the sanitary committee being called for, Prof. Chandler said, that there were two matters requiring investigation which would entail a small expenditure.

1. Water pollution and water supply.

2. Determining upon the instruments and methods for testing petro

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