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not apply to mixtures or compounds recognized as ordinary articles of food, provided that the same are not injurious to health and that the articles are distinctly labeled as a mixture, stating the components of the mixture."

§ 4. It shall be the duty of the State Board of Health to prepare and publish, from time to time, lists of the articles, mixtures or compounds declared to be exempt from the provisions of this act in accordance with the preceding section. The State Board of Health shall also, from time to time, fix the limits of variability permissible in any article of food or drug, or compound, the standard of which is not established by any national pharmacopoeia."

Numerous applications have been made to the Board by manufacturers and tradesmen, requesting the exact interpretation of these paragraphs, and also submitting various preparations for consideration, such for instance as coffee mixed with chicory, dried peas, etc.; syrup made chiefly of glucose from corn; mustard diluted with wheat or rice flour, etc., etc.

It has been deemed best not to take decisive action on any of these questions till after the reports on the different groups shall have been printed and carefully considered.

LITERATURE.

In addition to the special literature relating to each topic of investigation which is mentioned in each of the reports, the committee appends to its report a general list of works relating to the analyses of food and drugs prepared by Albert L. Colby, Ph. B.

Respectfully submitted,

C. F. CHANDLER,

Chairman of the Sanitary Committee.

GROUP I.*

MILK FRESH AND CONDENsed.

BY C. F. CHANDLER, Ph. D., and C. E. MUNSELL, Ph. B.

GROUP II.

BUTTER-DAIRY AND ARTIFICIAL; CHEESE; LARD; OLIVE OIL, AND FRUIT ESSENCES.

By G. C. CALDWELL, Ph. D.

To Dr. C. F. CHANDLER,

Chairman of the Sanitary Committee:

SIR. I submit herewith my report on the adulteration of articles of food and of drugs assigned to me:

In accordance with the request made at the first meeting of the bureau, I have collected and arranged so much of the literature of each subject as was accessible to me. I think that this collection is fairly complete so far as regards the journals; some recent German and many older monograph works on the adulteration of food I have been unable to consult; but having so full an account of the journalistic

*This report is printed after the reports on the other groups.

literature, I trust that I should not have found much additional matter of any importance in these works.

After this account of the literature of each subject of my division, I have given the results of my own work, and then, to avoid frequent repetitions of titles of articles and works, referred to, these are given together in the alphabetical order of the names of the authors; references to this list are made by small figures after each author's

name.

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Literature According to the several authorities who have written. on the subject, the substances named in the following list have been or are added to butter for fraudulent purposes: alum, borax, barium sulphate or heavy spar, chalk, curd, fats cheaper than butter, flour, gypsum, lard, lead carbonate, lead chromate (yellow), potato flour, salt, sodium silicate or soluble glass, soapstone, starch, and water in excessive quantity. From carelessness in respect to the vessels in which it is put, it may contain copper or zinc; or (The Analyst II, 36) copper may be introduced by the practice,said to be not uncommon in England, of throwing some copper coins into the churn to make the butter come when it obstinately refuses to come in the usual manner.

Except as regards the cheaper fats, and water in excessive quantity, there is very little precise and reliable information as to the extent to which these various adulterations occur. I have met with only general statements by French, German and English writers, such as that they are common, or occasional, or as in the case of two or three, such as lead chromate for coloring the butter, rare. I shall limit my report on the adulteration of butter to the consideration of the use of cheaper fats and of water, partly because of the vastly greater importance, which at present attaches to the use of the former as compared with any other alleged adulterant, and partly because there was not sufficient time at my command to enter into an examination for other adulterants whose use is probably very rare in this country. Cheaper fats as adulterants of butter- oleomargarine. As far back as 1861, English chemists state that the adulteration of butter with cheaper fats is practiced in England on a large scale. Hoskins (67), writing at about that time says, that lard is the most common adulterant of butter in this country, and in one case that came under his own observation flour was added with the lard.

At present, oleomargarine occupies the most prominent position as an adulterant of butter. As is well known, this substance consists simply of the more fusible portion of the fat of beef animals; the fat is washed, cut up and melted at from 122° to 124° Fahr., the liquid fat is drawn off from the matters that settle to the bottom or collect on the surface, strained and kept at from 80° to 90° till the stearine and palmitine crystallize out to a large extent; these glycerides are separated from the still liquid portion by hydraulic pressure in a room kept at the same temperature; this liquid portion, which solidifies as it cools, constitutes the oleomargarine. To make it into butter it is churned with milk (80 pounds of milk to 500 of oil) and a little annatto, and run from the churn into a trough where it is suddenly chilled by thoroughly

mixing it with pounded ice, and is thereby prevented from crystallizing; it is then salted and worked. V. Lang (83) mentions the use of the extract of the milk glands of the cow to aid in emulsionizing the oil with the water of the milk, as still an essential feature in European practice in the manufacture of this butter, 110 pounds of the oil, 18 to 22 quarts of fresh milk and the same quantity of the extract being churned together. He mentions also the use of cumarin which is one of the substances that give the agreeable aroma to many grasses, and which is most abundant in the Tonka bean, for giving to this artificial butter that aroma which natural butter appears to derive from the food of cows, a very small quantity of the alcoholic solution of the substance or of the alcoholic extract of the bean itself being sufficient to flavor a large quantity of butter.

Concerning the statistics of the manufacture of oleomargarine and artificial butter.-In this State three firms are engaged in this manufacture, viz.: the Commercial Manufacturing Company, which has a factory in New York city and another in Albany; Schwarzschild & Sultzberger, with one factory in New York city and Stern & Metzger who have one factory in New York and another in Buffalo. The oil and butter are also manufactured in western cities. It was stated before the New York Assembly Committee on Public Health (43) that there are fifteen establishments in the United States engaged in this manufacture.

The Commercial Manufacturing Company produced from June, 1880 to May 1881, 5,189,297 lbs. of oleomargarine and 3,999,527 lbs. of oleomargarine butter, at their Albany branch they made 20,000 lbs. of oleomargarine per week. Schwarzschild & Sulzberger make from 230,000 to 250,000 lbs. of oleomargarine per week from the fat of their adjacent slaughter-houses, and at Buffalo 30,000 to 40,000 lbs a week. Stern & Metzger produce 150,000 lbs. per week.

These figures were obtained by Inspector Munsell from the firms themselves.

The oleomargarine is sold at about 16 cents a pound.

Concerning the disposition of this oleomargarine, it is both exported and sold in this country. From the testimony before the above mentioned committee (43) it appears that large quantities are sold for use in New York city and shipped to various parts of the State and to New England; it was stated that farmers buy it to mix with their butter. Abroad, according to Lang(83), it is highly esteemed for use on shipboard as a substitute for butter in cooking, since it keeps so well and is at the same time quite neutral in taste.

Concerning the quality of the materials used in its manufacture statements conflict. It is naturally claimed by the manufacturers that only the best part of the beef fat is used, and that a reasonable degree of cleanliness is maintained in all parts of the factory; others, in some cases undoubtedly quite as strongly biased in the opposite direction, say that all the refuse fat of the animal is used, clean and unclean alike, and even the fat of animals, including horses, that have died of disease; that alum and acids are used in the manufacture for cleansing the fat, and that the factories are filthy. No one can deny that in a manufacture of this kind there are such disagreeable posзibilities, but many impartial observers who have visited the factories of

established reputation do not find such statements, as to uncleanness of the materials used or of the process of manufacture, to be justified, at least so far as factories of such a character are concerned.

Oleomargarine butter.-This oleomargarine is made into butter on a large scale by the Commercial Manufacturing Company and the oil is used by many firms in the city engaged in the cheese and butter business for making this artificial butter (Munsell) or perhaps for mixing with genuine butter. In the minority report of the New York Assembly Committee on Public Health, it is stated that the total product of oleomargarine butter in the State is 20,000,000 lbs. per annum, which is equal to one-fifth of the quantity of dairy butter made. Concerning the disposition of this artificial butter, it is exported and sold at home. The domestic trade, according to H. K. Thurber's testimony before this committee (43), has lately made up a much larger proportion of the whole than formerly; of the product of the Commercial Manufacturing Company in 1880-1 not over 10 per cent was exported, in the place of 40 or 50 per cent as formerly. The butter is consumed in New York city, New Jersey, Pennsylvania and in New England manufacturing towns, and much of it goes to the Southern States where it is stated to be sold under its own name. One witness before the Assembly Committee (43) affirmed that more artificial than natural butter is consumed in New York city.

It is sold at the same price as ordinary grades of butter; it was stated by many of the witnesses before the New York Assembly committee (43), that though it could well be afforded at a lower rate, to sell it so would only arouse suspicion and really injure the trade. It was also affirmed that it is sold in such a way as to imply that it is genuine butter, even if not stated to be such in so many words, and the consumer takes it supposing it to be such. But it appears that there are, or at least have been, places in the city where it is sold under its own name. It was stated that it is purchased largely by restaurants, boarding-house and hotel keepers.

As an imitation of genuine butter it is generally acknowledged to be so good that most people would not detect it, and that even experts may occasionally be deceived. It is more crumbly than genuine butter in cold weather, and to avoid this defect genuine butter is mixed with it — or, as in Holland, vegetable oils. Adulteration of genuine butter with from 40 to 60 per cent of oleomargarine is even more difficult of detection by the ordinary public than the entire substitution of oleomargarine butter for the genuine article; some even affirm that it cannot in some cases be distinguished from fancy or the so-called giltedged butter.

Lard as an adulterant of butter. It was affirmed by many witnesses before the Assembly committee (43), that lard is used in western cities for the adulteration of butter, and the product, containing only 25 to 50 per cent of genuine butter, is shipped to the east as well as consumed at home; that the process is kept secret, but that the trade here in the product under the name of "Lardine" is open and notorious; that thousands and thousands of packages of it reach the city, and that large quantities are shipped to Europe; that it is sold to retail dealers as oleomargarine butter, and by them to consumers as genuine butter; that fine soapstone powder is sometimes mixed with the lard; that the imitation is so good as to deceive anybody, and it is a

more dangerous counterfeit than oleomargarine butter, while other witnesses considered it as less so; that bakers prefer it to oleomargarine butter because softer. Inspector Munsell discovered one of these factories in New York city in the upper stories of a pork-packing establishment; there the lumps of the perfectly fresh hog fat are broken up, the tissue removed as far as possible, and the residue is melted by steam with about equal parts of inferior butter; 5,000 lbs. of larded butter are made per week at this establishment. A sample of the butter was examined by me for volatile fatty acids, and with the microscope (No. 2017, p. 527). One witness before the committee above cited, gave it as his opinion that all the firms manufacturing oleomargarine use some lard. It was stated in April, 1880, that lard butter was sold in New York at twenty cents a pound; that in character it was ranked as "fair, about on a par with ordinary dairy lines, but grain too fine, and no quality."

Mr. Burrill (of Whitman & Burrill, Little Falls), states in a letter to Mr. Munsell, that by way of experiment only, they have made a few pounds of butter from their emulsion of lard (see p. ), or artificial cream as they choose to call it, by setting it aside for twenty-four hours to become acid, as cream usually is for churning, and then churning it in the usual manner, and also by "setting" a mixture of the artificial cream and new milk for the cream to rise in the usual manner; both the natural and artificial cream came up together, and this mixture when churned gave a product which it was very difficult to distinguish from the best creamery products, although only one-fourth to one-half of it was genuine butter. He states, however, that the artificial cream is not used in this way at any of the creameries where it is made, but that all of it goes into the cheese; only genuine butter is made at the lard cheese factories.

Concerning adulteration of butter with vegetable oils, it was affirmed in the minority report of the Assembly committee that the adulteration of butter with lard and cotton-seed oil was known to be extensive. In Holland, according to Griessmayer (52), an imitation of butter is made. by simply mixing tallow and olive oil. It is affirmed that in Holland rape oil is purified by heating it with starch to 300° C. and above, till a golden yellow, agreeably tasting oil is obtained, which mixed with tallow gives a butter-like product; but Lang (83), says that in repeated attempts to make this oil, he always gets a product that is very offensive both in odor and taste, which could not possibly be used for making an imitation of butter.

THE QUESTION OF ADULTERATION.

Is the use of these cheaper fats for butter an adulteration, since butter is mostly nothing but fats of identically the same character? In substituting a cheaper article for a dearer one, and selling it for the dearer one, the law is violated. Whether it is also violated by the addition of an unwholesome substance to a common and necessary article of food appears to be still an open question. Leaving for the moment the affirmations out of consideration, that have been made as to the presence of unwholesome matters in the oleomargarine itself, is pure oleomargarine unwholesome or not? In 1879 the English Local Government Board, which has charge of the detection and ex

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