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At the quarterly meeting of the Board, held August 9th, it was Resolved, That for the purpose of carrying out the provisions of chapter 292 of the laws of 1882, the following rules be and hereby are adopted.


(1.) The instruments to be used in testing oils which come under the provisions of section 1 of the law, shall be constructed as shown in the following diagram and description:*


*This instrument, in its original form, was devised and first employed by the Michigan State Board of Health; and a description of it will be found in its first annual report, 1873. The Wisconsin Board of Health afterward adopted the same instrument, and it is sometimes mentioned as the "Wisconsin tester." The analysts of this State, acting upon the suggestions of Mr. A. H. Elliott, have made some changes which, in their opinion, will render the testing easier and more certain.

Fig. 1 represents the instrument entire. It consists of a sheet-copper stand 8 inches high, exclusive of the base, and 4 inches in diameter. On one side is an aperture 34 inches high, for introducing a small spirit-lamp, A, about 3 inches in height, or better, a small gas burner in place of the lamp when a supply of gas is at hand. The water bath, Fig. 2, is also of copper, and is 44 inches in height and 4 inches inside diameter. The opening in the top is 27 inches in diameter. It is also provided with a 4-inch flange which supports the bath in the cylindrical stand. The capacity of the bath is about 20 fluid ounces, this quantity being indicated by a mark on the inside. Fig. 3 represents the copper oil-holder. The lower section is 3 inches high, and 24 inches inside diameter. The upper part is 1 inch high and 38 inches diameter, and serves as a vapor-chamber. The upper rim is provided with a small flange which serves to hold the glass cover in place. The oil holder contains about 10 fluid ounces, when filled to within one-eighth of an inch of the flange which joins the oil cup and the vapor-chamber. In order to prevent reflec tion from the otherwise bright surface of the metal, the oil-cup is blackened on the inside by forming a sulphide of copper, by means of sulphide of ammonium. The cover, C, is of glass, and is 3 inches in diameter; on one side is a circular opening, closed by a cork through which the thermometer, B, passes. In front of this is a second opening of an inch deep and the same in width on the rim, through which the flashing jet is passed in testing. The substitution of a glass for a metal cover more readily enables the operator to note the exact point at which the flash occurs. A small gas jet, inch in length, furnishes the best means for igniting the vapor. Where gas cannot be had the flame from a small waxed twine answers very well.

(2.) The test shall be applied according to the following directions:

Remove the oil cup and fill the water-bath with coid water up to the mark on the inside. Replace the oil cup and pour in enough oil to fill it to within oneeighth of an inch of the flange joining the cup and the vapor-chamber above. Care must be taken that the oil does not flow over the flange. Remove all air bubbles with a piece of dry paper. Place the glass cover on the oil cup, and so adjust the themometer that its bulb shall be just covered by the oil,

If an alcohol lamp is employed for heating the water-bath, the wick should be carefully trimmed and adjusted to a small flame. A small Bunsen burner may be used in place of the lamp. The rate of heating should be about two degrees per minute, and in no case exceed three degrees.

As a flash torch, a small gas jet, inch in length, should be employed. When gas is not at hand employ a piece of waxed linen twine. The flame in this case, however, should be small.

When the temperature of the oil has reached 85° F., the testings should commence. To this end insert the torch into the opening in the cover, passing it in at such an angle as to well clear the cover, and to a distance about half way between the oil and the cover. The motion should be steady and uniform, rapid and without any pause. This should be repeated at every two degrees rise of the thermometer until the temperature has reached 95°, when the lamp should be removed and the testings should be made for each degree of temperature until 100° is reached. After this the lamp may be replaced if necessary and the testings continued for each two degrees.

The appearance of a slight bluish flame shows that the flashing point has been reached.

In every case note the temperature of the oil before introducing the torch. The flame of the torch must not come in contact with the oil.

The water-bath should be filled with cold water for each separate test, and the oil from a previous test carefully wiped from the oil cup.

(3.) The instrum ent to be used in testing oils which come under the provisions of section 2 of the law shall consist of the cylinder shown in Fig. 1 and the copper oil cup shown in Fig. 3, together with a copper collar for suspending the cup in the cylinder, and an adjustable support for holding the thermometer.

(4.) The test for ascertaing the igniting-point shall be conducted as follows: Fill the cup with the oil to be tested to within three-eights of an inch of the flange joining the cup and the vapor chamber above. Care must be taken that the oil does not flow over the flange. Place the cup in the cylinder and adjust the thermometer so that its bulb shall be just covered by the oil. Place the lamp or gas burner under the oil cup. The rate of heating should not exceed 10° a minute below 250° F., nor exceed 5° a minute above this point. The testing flame described in the directions for ascertaining the flashing point should be used. It should be applied to the surface of the oil at every 5° rise in the thermometer, till the oil ignites.

(5.) The thermometers used for these tests should be compared, from time to time, with a standard thermometer, with special reference to the accuracy of the 100° and 300° marks.


(6.) The collection of samples shall be made under the direction of the sanitary commitee, by the inspector or the public analysts. The samples, properly marked, shall be placed in the hands of the public analysts for examination, and the results reported to the sanitary committee.

(7.) Whenever an accident shall occur from the explosion or ignition of any oil on the premises of a consumer, it shall be the duty of the inspector to at once secure, if possible, a sample of the oil, and submit the same to one of the public analysts for examination, and to procure such evidence as to the source of the oil and the nature of the accident as may be necessary for legal proceedings.


(8.) It shall be the duty of the inspector, with the advice of the sanitary committee, to bring to the attention of the district attorneys all violations of the law which may be discovered, and to furnish the evidence necessary to the prosecu tion. It shall also be the duty of the public analysts to serve as witnesses when required to do so.


The supervision of this work has been entrusted to the Sanitary Committee of this Board.

Samples of oil, and inquiries relating to the subject of rules and testing, should be addressed to the Chairman of this Committee, Prof. C. F. CHANDLER, Columbia College, Forty-ninth street and Madison avenue, New York.

The foregoing regulations and service having been ordered by this board, the law is to be faithfully respected and enforced.

EDWARD M. MOORE, President.



"An act to prevent

As provided and directed by the law known as, the adulteration of food or drugs, chapter 407, passed June 8, 1881, the State Board of Health held a special meeting on the 23d of June to adopt such measures as seemed necessary to facilitate the enforcement of the act, and to prepare rules and regulations and appoint the necessary inspectors and analysts. The act is in the following words, namely:

"AN ACT to prevent the adulteration of food or drugs."

[Chapter 407, Laws of 1881.]

The People of the State of New York, represented in Senate and Assembly, do enact as follows:

SECTION 1. No person shall, within this State, manufacture, have, offer for sale, or sell any article of food or drugs which is adulterated within the meaning of this act, and any person violating this provision shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor, and upon conviction thereof shall be punished by fine not exceeding fifty dollars for the first offense, and not exceeding one hundred dollars for each subsequent offense.

§ 2. The term "food," as used in this act, shall include every article used for food or drink by man. The term "drug," as used in this act, shall include all medicines for internal and external use.

§ 3. An article shall be deemed to be adulterated within the meaning of this act

a.- In the case of drugs.

1. If, when sold under or by a name recognized in the United States Pharmacopoeia, it differs from the standard of strength, quality, or purity laid down therein.

2. If, when sold under or by a name not recognized in the United States Pharmacopoeia, but which is found in some other pharmacopoeia or other standard work on Materia Medica, it differs materially from the standard of strength, quality, or purity laid down in such work. 3. If its strength or purity fall below the professed standard under

which it is sold.

b. In the case of food or drink.

1. If any substance or substances has or have been mixed with it so as to reduce or lower or injuriously affect its quality or strength. 2. If any inferior or cheaper substance or substances have been substituted wholly or in part for the article.

3. If any valuable constitutent of the article has been wholly or in part abstracted.

4. If it be an imitation of, or be sold under the name of, another article.

5. If it consists wholly or in part of a deceased or decomposed, or putrid or rotten, animal or vegetable substance, whether manufactured or not, or, in the case of milk, if it is the produce of a diseased animal. 6. If it be colored, or coated, or polished, or powdered, whereby damage is concealed, or it is made to appear better than it really is, or of greater value.

7. If it contains any added poisonous ingredient, or any ingredient which may render such article injurious to the health of a person consuming it: Provided, that the State Board of Health may, with the approval of the governor, from time to time declare certain articles or preparations to be exempt from the provisions of this act: And provided further, that the provisions of this act shall not apply to mixtures or compounds recognized as ordinary articles of food, provided that the same are not injurious to health and that the articles are distinctly labelled as a mixture, stating the components of the mixture.

§ 4. It shall be the duty of the State Board of Health to prepare and publish from time to time, lists of the articles, mixtures or compounds declared to be exempt from the provisions of this act in accordance with the preceding section. The State Board of Health shall also from time to time fix the limits of variability permissible in any article of food or drug or compound, the standard of which is not established, by any national pharmacopoeia.

§ 5. The State Board of Health shall take cognizance of the interests of the public health as it relates to the sale of food and drugs and the adulteration of the same, and make all necessary investigations and inquiries relating thereto. It shall also have the supervision of the appointment of public analysts and chemists, and upon its recommendation whenever it shall deem any such officers incompetent, the appointment of any and every such officer shall be revoked and be held to be void and of no effect. Within thirty days after the passage of this act, the State Board of Health shall meet and adopt such measures as may seem necessary to facilitate the enforcement of this act, and prepare rules and regulations with regard to the proper methods of collecting and examining articles of food or drugs, and for the appointment of the necessary inspectors and analysts; and the State Board of Health shall be authorized to expend, in addition to all sums already appropriated for said Board, an amount not exceeding ten thousand dollars for the purpose of carrying out the provisions of this act. And the sum of ten thousand dollars is hereby appropriated out of any moneys in the treasury, not otherwise appropriated, for the purposes in this section provided.

§ 6. Every person selling or offering or exposing any article of food or drugs for sale, or delivering any article to purchasers, shal, be bound to serve or supply any public analyst or other agent of the State or local Board of Health appointed under this act, who shall apply to him for that purpose, and on his tendering the value of the same, with a sample sufficient for the purpose of analysis of any article which is included in this act, and which is in the possession of the person selling, under a penalty not exceeding fifty dollars for a first offense, and one hundred dollars for a second and subsequent offenses.

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