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B. Oil-tube. M. Manometer. R. Plunger

A. Water reservoir. to adjust level in manometer.

XII. Salleron-Urbain (Paris) Apparatus.

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The aim of this apparatus is perhaps a good one, but the results of experiments with it are unsatisfactory. One of its worst faults is the absurdly small quantity (three cubic centimeters) of oil used for each experiment. Another difficulty is the constant fear that one of the many joints which it contains is leaking. A comparison of the tests obtained with this apparatus shows much discordance and the cause of this is not at all apparent since every care was taken that the

experiments should be successful. By comparing the number of millimeters of tension for every degree above fifteen Celsius, in the three oils used, we obtain the following results: No. 1 oil in experiment No. 182 showed in two readings an increase of 31 and 38 millimetres respectively for each degree rise; and in experiment No. 185 the same oil showed in two readings an increase of 25 and 45 millimetres respectively for the same rise of temperature. With No. 3 oil in experiment No. 179 two readings gave 14 and 30 millimeters respectively for every degree of rise in temperature; while in experiments Nos. 180 and 181 an increase of 33 and 37 millimeters respectively was obtained for every rise of one degree Celsius. In the same manner No. 4 oil gave in experiments Nos. 187, 188, and 189, an increase of 21, 14 and 25 millimeters respectively for every degree rise of Celsius. From these experiments it will be seen that the tensions of vapors obtained by this apparatus are too irregular and unreliable to make it a suitable instrument to be used to determiue the safety of kerosene oil.

XIII. PEASE'S ELECTRIC CLOSED TESTER.

This is the only closed tester with an electric flash that could be obtained for this investigation, and it is the last one patented in the United States. It consists of the usual water-bath and oil-cup, together with a spirit-lamp for heating the water-bath. In the oil-cup there are some modifications not found in other testers. In the first place there is an over-flow tube to determine a constant level of the oil while heating; and secondly, the cover of the oil-cup which slides back and forth in a horizontal direction is slightly convex and has a short tube in the centre which carries the wires to give the electric spark thirdly, the thermometer is fitted to a hinged valve which closes a slot in the cover, and this valve is pressed down upon the cover by a small catch. The spark is obtained from any induction coil that will give one a quarter of an inch long.

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A. Water bath. B. Oil-cup. C. Spark wires.

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The experiments with this apparatus go to prove that from its construction it is little better than an open tester. The overflow tube to the oil-cup is a good modification and insures the same and a constant level for every experiment. But the cover of the oil-cup does not fit tightly enough and the opening in the centre is too large (in.) Since the spark passes in the centre of the opening in the cover the vapors formed have a chance to get away around the sides of the opening, and very often a flash is not obtained until the oil itself takes fire. That the vapors do thus escape can be proved by flashing the oil with an eighth of an inch gas-jet pushed down the side of the flashtube; and furthermore by covering the flash-tube with a small glass plate to hold the vapors a flash can be obtained at a much lower tempemperature. By simultaneously raising the valve of the thermometer opening when passing the spark, a flash can be obtained at about the same temperature, as the oil would flash upon an open tester. In fact the results obtained by this apparatus are not quite as good as those with Saybolt's Open Electric Tester, and like the latter it has the drawback of having a galvanic battery to be maintained.*

* Since the experiments with this tester were completed, the inventor has changed the opening that carries the spark wires, and made it much smaller, but I have not been able to make any experiments with this modified form. The devise appears to be a good one.

Petroleum tests required in various States and foreign countries.

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PATENT No. 36,488. Apparatus for testing coal oil by J. Tagliabue, New York, Sept. 16, 1862. Claim for overflow holes on water bath, groove in oil cup to regulate height of oil, with glass wickholder, cork float and wire attached to side of oil cup. Essentially an open

tester with floating flash-jet.

PATENT No. 36,826. New York, Sept. 1862. to ignite the vapors in. its first form.

Apparatus for testing coal oil by J. Tagliabue,
Claim for a closed apparatus with a chimney
This is Tagliabue's well-known Pyrometer in

PATENT No. 35,184. Apparatus for testing coal oil and other mixed liquids, by H. J. Smith and W. Jones, Philadelphia, Pa., May 6, 1862. This is a partially closed tester with a flame over a cylindrical chimney, and the oil is heated directly in the oil cup without the use of a water bath.

PATENT No. 49,777. Petroleum tester by A. Millochau, Jersey City, N. J., Sept. 5, 1865. A rather shallow vessel with central section containing a wick which serves to heat and flash the oil. There is no water bath used.

PATENT No. 56,107. Carbon Oil Fire-tester, by G. E. Shaw, Pittsburgh, Pa., July 3, 1866. This is a partially closed tester, with a water-bath, two thermometers and a mechanical torch.

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