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WITNESSES

Aho, Patricia W., Executive Director, Maine Petroleum Association

Prepared statement

Statement, American Petroleum Institute

Bogan, Doug, Director, New Hampshire Clean Water Action
Glen, Howie
Harrison, Margo
Holmberg, William C., President, Biorefiner

Prepared statement
Kinner, Nancy, Professor of Civil Engineering, University of New Hampshire .

Prepared statement
Klemm, Hon. Arthur, President, New Hampshire State Senate

Prepared statement
Lang, Hal
Maguire, Bob
Martin, Mary Ellen
Miller, Christina, Derry, NH

Prepared statement
Norris, Richard
Varney, Robert W., Commissioner, New Hampshire Department of Environ-
mental Services

Prepared statement

232

287

289

239
251
245
231
268
229
272
222
255
247
252
243
220
254
238

221
256

OPENING STATEMENTS

Baucus, Hon. Max, U.S. Senator from the State of Montana

360

Chafee, Hon. Lincoln, U.S. Senator from the State of Rhode Island

318

Clinton, Hon. Hillary Rodham, U.S. Senator from the State of New York 322

Corzine, Hon. Jon S., U.S. Senator from the State of New Jersey..

320, 361

Inhofe, Hon. James M., U.S. Senator from the State of Oklahoma

320

Lieberman, Hon. Joseph I., U.S. Senator from the State of Connecticut

336

Reid, Hon. Harry, U.S. Senator from the State of Nevada...

315, 358

Smith, Hon. Bob, U.S. Senator from the State of New Hampshire

309

Voinovich, Hon. George V., U.S. Senator from the State of Ohio

313

Wyden, Hon. Ron, U.Š. Senator from the State of Oregon

317

WITNESSES

Brown, Marilyn A., Director, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Pro-

gram, Oak Ridge National Laboratory

346

Prepared statement

462

Responses to additional questions from:

Senator Corzine

468

Senator Reid

469

Christy, John R., Professor, Department of Atmospheric Science, University

of Alabama at Huntsville

339

Prepared statement

383

Edmonds, Jae, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Battelle Memorial In-

stitute

341

Prepared statement

392

Report, Global Energy Technology Strategy

396–452

Lal, Rattan, School of Natural Resources, Ohio State University

343

Prepared statement

452

Responses to additional questions from Senator Corzine

456

Lindzen, Richard S., Alfred P. Sloane Professor of Meteorology, Massachusetts

Institute of Technology

324

Prepared statement

352

Responses to additional questions from Senator Reid

366

Rogers, James E., Chairman, President and Chief Executive Officer, Cinergy
Corporation

344
Prepared statement

457
Responses to additional questions from Senator Smith

461

Trenberth, Kevin E., Head, Climate Analysis Section, Climate and Global

Dynamics Division, National Center for Atmospheric Research

325

Article, Stronger Evidence of Human Influence on the Climate

371

Prepared statement

367

Responses to additional questions from:

Senator Corzine

380

Senator Reid

383

Page

AUGUST 1, 2001

IMPACT OF AIR EMISSIONS FROM THE TRANSPORTATION SECTOR

OPENING STATEMENTS

506 506 508 507 504 499 501 534 509

Carper, Hon. Michael D., U.S. Senator from the State of Delaware
Chafee, Hon. Lincoln, U.S. Senator from the State of Rhode Island
Clinton, Hon. Hillary Rodham, U.S. Senator from the State of New York
Corzine, Hon. Jon S., U.S. Senator from the State of New Jersey
Inhofe, Hon. James M., U.S. Senator from the State of Oklahoma
Jeffords, Hon. James M., U.S. Senator from the State of Vermont
Lieberman, Hon. Joseph I., U.S. Senator from the State of Connecticut
Reid, Hon. Harry, U.S. Senator from the State of Nevada
Voinovich, Hon. George V., U.S. Senator from the State of Ohio

WITNESSES
Brenner, Rob, acting Assistant Administrator, Air and Radiation, U.S. Envi-
ronmental Protection Agency

Prepared statement
Dana, Greg, Vice President, Environment, Alliance of Automobile Manufac-
turers

Prepared statement
Freilla, Omar, New York City Environmental Justice Alliance

Prepared statement
Greenbaum, Dan, President, Health Effects Institute

Letter, Health Effects Institute

Prepared statement Mark, Jason, Clean Vehicles Program Director, Union of Concerned Scientists

Prepared statement Saitas, Jeff, Executive Director, Texas Natural Resources Conservation Commission

Prepared statement

503 534

520 544 523 548 521 552 549

518 541

526 556

ADDITIONAL MATERIAL

Letter, Health Effects Institute

552

CLEAN AIR ACT OVERSIGHT ISSUES

WEDNESDAY, MARCH 21, 2001

U.S. SENATE,
COMMITTEE ON ENVIRONMENT AND PUBLIC WORKS,
SUBCOMMITTEE ON CLEAN AIR, WETLANDS, PRIVATE
PROPERTY, AND NUCLEAR SAFETY,

Washington, DC. The subcommittee met, pursuant to notice, at 9:10 a.m. in room 406, Senate Dirksen Building, Hon. George V. Voinovich (chairman of the subcommittee) presiding. ENVIRONMENTAL REGULATIONS AND THE NATION'S

ENERGY POLICY

Present: Senators Voinovich, Lieberman, Clinton, Corzine, Inhofe, Crapo, Carper, and Smith sex officio).

Senator VOINOVICH. Good morning. The hearing will come to order. I have a statement I want to put in the record.

OPENING STATEMENT OF HON. GEORGE V. VOINOVICH,

U.S. SENATOR FROM THE STATE OF OHIO Today's hearing is on the interaction between our environmental regulations and our nation's energy policy. This is our first subcommittee hearing this year, and I'd like to welcome our ranking member, Senator Joe Lieberman. I look forward to working with him in Congress and in this committee.

Few would disagree that we are in the midst of an energy crisis in this nation, one that is having a tremendous influence over th state of our economy and affecting the quality of life of the American people. The impact of this energy crisis is, and will continue to be, of such a magnitude that I believe what this committee does this year could have more sway over what happens to our economy and the citizens of the United States than at any other time in recent memory.

All we need do is look at what is happening in the State of California and it is apparent how urgently we need to enact a national energy policy. Brownouts, rolling blackouts, lost business—all have brought chaos to this nation's largest State and largest economy. Not only is California's energy crisis impacting California; it reaches nationwide and across the globe.

Since the beginning of the 107th Congress, I have been holding a series of public meetings across the State of Ohio where I have asked individuals and business owners to relay their experiences as to how our energy crisis is impacting them.

Last month in Cleveland I held a meeting with Catholic Charities, Lutheran Housing, and the Salvation Army, as well as senior citizens, low-income parents, and handicapped individuals. The Catholic Diocese said the number of helpline calls in 2000 was up 96 percent from 1999 and 194 percent from 1998 to 2000.

The Salvation Army, first 7 weeks this year, 559 families seeking assistance with energy costs; last year, 330.

For the least of our brothers and sisters, the choice comes down to paying for heat or paying for food, and because of this many are having to rely on hunger centers for their meals.

A few weeks ago I met with business leaders in Cincinnati. They weren't big businesses. They were small ones. Each of them relayed how energy costs were impacting their particular business.

Mr. Joe Maas, who owns JTM Provisions Company, a food service company, indicated that JTM will pay $200,000 more this year than last year for gas and electric, a 100 percent increase for the business.

H.J. Benken Florists, owned by Mr. Michael Benken, is a family owned business. He reports that energy costs for many Californiabased companies that provide flowers to Mr. Benken's shop have increased as high as 600 percent. As a matter of fact, he said that most roses are now grown in Ecuador or other Latin American countries where energy prices are lower.

We read the Wall Street Journal and New York Times, business section and I would suspect that some of the predictions that the profits aren't reaching what they suspected them to have a lot to do with their energy costs.

Many Americans live paycheck to paycheck, and when they have to allocate more of their paycheck for energy costs and make a choice to meet the mortgage payments, pay their bills, or cut back on other spending, usually they cut back on spending, and since consumer spending makes up 68 percent of our gross domestic product, America's competitiveness is negatively impacted.

This hearing is the first in a series of hearings examining our energy and environmental policies. To that end, I am working closely with Senator Murkowski on his National Energy Security Act. In fact, I am the fourth original cosponsor of this legislation.

It is my intention to examine the various environmental issues surrounding our energy policy in our subcommittee in order to prepare for action by the Senate on the Murkowski energy bill.

If you were to listen to the media, you'd think that the only thing in the bill is oil drilling in ANWR. It is much more than that. The bill is a comprehensive package of proposals and it includes general provisions to protect energy supply and security; it encourages clean coal technology, allowing us to use our 250-year supply; it supports domestic oil and gas exploration; it promotes energy conservation and efficiency; it encourages alternative fuels and renewable energy supplies for homes, businesses, and cars; and it provides continued assistance under the Low Income Energy Assistance Program, or LIHEAP program.

Today's hearing will begin with a broad perspective on the energy end environmental issues, followed by a closer look at utilityrelated issues. Our next hearing will look more specifically at oil and gas issues. We will then have a hearing on global climate

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