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root with weak secondary roots which and coleoptile) often the result of overare usually associated with a short treatment of seed with chemicals; (viii) hypocotyl; (ii) a malformed hypocotyl decayed shoots (usually weak and show which may be shortened or thickened; decay near the point of attachment to (iii) & thickened and shortened hypo- the grain which has often decayed) procotyl and roots owing to injury from vided the decay is not the result of chemical treatment, provided the injury improper test conditions; (ix) bad frostis still apparent in a soil or sand check damage characterized by grainy coleoptest; (iv) decayed cotyledons or other tiles and spirally twisted leaves and essential seedling structures, provided coleoptiles; (x) coleoptiles developed the decay was not the result of improper without the leaves (in soil tests, some of test conditions; or (V) various combina- the longest of the spirally twisted seedtions of the abnormalities described in lings will appear fairly strong but most this subparagraph.

of them break off just above the attach(20 F. R. 7933, Oct. 21, 1955)

ment of the plumule and coleoptile to the

grain; the shortest of the seedlings do & 201.56-5 Grass family (Gramineae).

not emerge in soil tests); or, (xi) various Kinds of seed: Bentgrasses, blue- combinations of the abnormalities de. grasses, bluestems, bromes, cereals, scribed in this subparagraph. fescues, millets, orchard grass, redtop, (b) Rice. (1) Normal seedlings in. ryegrass, sorghum, timothy, wheatgrass, clude those that have: (i) One primary and all other grasses listed in $ 201.1 (h). root, usually with numerous lateral roots

In the grass family a perfect seedling (several permanent roots arising from should have a well-developed primary the first node should be present if seedroot system, an intact cotyledon or scu- lings are not removed until the end of tellum, seed free from serious decay and the test); (ii) well-developed green long, well-developed green leaves within leaves, not badly split, regardless of the coleoptile. One or more leaves may whether the coleoptiles are split; or (iil) have broken through the coleoptile by slight infection by fungi, provided none the end of the test period.

of the essential seedling structures have (a) Barley, oats, rye, and wheat. (1) been damaged. Normal seedlings include those that (2) Abnormal seedlings include those have: (i) At least one primary or that have: (1) No roots; (ii) a spindly seminal root, but preferably two or three primary root with very little or no seminal roots, provided the shoot is well- branching or secondary development; developed and the grain is not badly (iii) no green leaves, but only the white decayed; (11) well-developed green leaves, sheath or coleoptile; (iv) a spindly and not badly split, regardless of whether the sometimes watery shoot which is usually coleoptiles are split; (iii) spiral twist- associated with decay of the rice grain; ing or bending of the shoot, provided it (v) a short leaf, extending no more than is green in color, has normal length, and one-half the distance up through the is not frost damaged; or (iv) slight coleoptile; (vi) shattered or longitudiinfection by fungi, provided none of the nally split plumules with or without essential seedling structures have been splitting of the coleoptile; (vii) decayed damaged.

plumules (usually appear weak and show (2) Abnormal seedlings include those decay near the point of attachment to that have: (i) No primary root, (11)

the grain) provided the decay is not the only one or two short or spindly seminal result of improper test conditions; or roots which are usually accompanied by

(viii) various combinations of the weakened shoots and decayed grains;

abnormalities described in this subpara(iii) no green leaves, but only the white graph. sheath or coleoptile formed, which may (c) Corn. (1) Normal seedlings in. or may not be grainy, spirally twisted, clude those that have: (1) One primary split, or shortened; (iv) a shortened root, usually with secondary roots presshoot, extending no more than one-half ent; (ii) no primary root, but with at the way up through the coleoptile; (v) a least two vigorous secondary roots, prothin, spindly, or watery shoot usually vided the grain is not badly decayed, and accompanied by weak root development the shoot is well-developed; (iii) welland decayed grains; (vi) badly shattered developed green leaves, not badly split, or longitudinally split leaves, with or regardless of whether the coleoptiles are without splitting of the coleoptile; (vii) split; (iv) twisted and curled shoots thickened and shortened shoot (leaves bound by the tough seedcoat, provided

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the shoot is not decayed; or (v) slight combinations of the abnormalities deinfection by fungi, provided none of the scribed. essential seedling structures have been (e) Grasses and millets. (1) Normal damaged.

seedlings include those that have: (i) A (2) Abnormal seedlings include those well-developed primary root, usually that have: (i) No primary or secondary with root hairs; (ii) well-developed green roots; (ii) no primary roots but small leaves, not badly split, regardless of and weak secondary roots; (iii) whether the coleoptiles are split; (ill) plumule, but only the white sheath or slight infection by fungi, provided none coleoptile; (iv) a shortened plumule, ex- of the essential seedling structures have tending no more than one-half the way been damaged; (iv) spirally coiled roots up through the coleoptile; (v) a thick- held within the tightly enveloping ened and shortened shoot, often the glumes as in certain samples of Bermuda result of overtreatment of seed with grass; or (v) poor root development rechemicals; (vi) a spindly and pale shoot sulting from injury caused by use of a usually associated with moldy seeds; potassium nitrate solution (if many roots (vii) albino (entirely white) seedlings, are so affected, a retest should be made which will not develop into plants be- on top of soil in closed Petri dishes). cause of lack of chlorophyll; (vii) (2) Abnormal seedlings include those shattered or longitudinally split leaves, that have: (i) No root; (11) & weak, with or without splitting of the coleop- stubby, or spindly root, usually short and tile; (ix) decayed shoots of which the watery, associated with a decayed seed; plumules usually appear weak and show (ii) no plumule, but only the white decay near the point of attachment to sheath or coleoptile which is often short the grain and the scutellum is usually and thick; (iv) a shortened plumule, exrotten, provided the decay is not the tending only one-half the distance up result of improper test conditions; or through the coleoptile; (v) & spindly (x) various combinations of the abnor- plumule, usually pale and watery; (v) a malities described in this subparagraph. shattered longitudinally split plumule

(d) Sorghum spp. (1) Normal seed- with or without splitting of the coleoplings include those that have (1) one tile; (vii) decayed plumules, provided the vigorous primary root, usually with well- decay is not the result of improper test developed lateral branches by the end of conditions (the plumules usually appear the test period; (11) short primary root, weak and show decay near the point of but with at least two vigorous lateral attachment to the seed, which is usually roots; (iii) well-developed green leaves rotten); or (viii) various combinations not badly split, regardless of whether of the abnormalities described in this coleoptiles are split; (iv) slight Infection subparagraph. by fungi, provided none of the essential [20 F.R. 7933, Oct. 21, 1956, as amended at seedling structures have been damaged; 24 F.R. 3954, May 15, 1959, 80 F.R. 7891, June (v) red coloration on the roots and on 18, 1965) the coleoptile of the shoot, caused by

& 201.56–6 Legume natural pigments, provided the seedling

pea family

(Leguminosae). is otherwise normal. (2) Abnormal seedlings include those

Kinds of seed: Alfalfa, alyceclover, that have (1) no roots; (11) weak, spindly,

asparagusbean, beans (Phaseolus spp.), or short primary root, and less than two beggarweed, black medic, broadbean, vigorous lateral roots (often associated

bur-clovers, button-clover, chickpea, with decay of the grain); (iii) no plu

clovers (Trifolium spp.), cowpea, crotemule, but only the sheath or coleoptile; larias, crownvetch, guar, hairy indigo, (iv) a shortened plumule, extending no

kudzu, lentil, lespedezas, lupines, peas, more than one-half the way up through peanut, rough pea sainfoin, sesbania, the coleoptile; (v) spindly, pale

sourclover, soybean, sweetclover, trefoils, plumule, usually associated with moldy velvetbean, and vetches. seeds; (vi) shattered and longitudinally (a) Beans: adzuki, field, garden, lima, split plumules, with or without splitting and mung. Seedling interpretation for of the coleoptile; (vii) decayed plumules, all these beans is similar as they all have provided the decay is not due to improper the same type of development. testing conditions (the plumules usually (1) Normal seedlings include those appear weak and show decay near the that have: (i) a terminal bud or epicotyl, point of attachment of the grain, which and at least one primary leaf, with one is usually decayed); or (vill) various complete cotyledon or two broken cotyle

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dons with half or more of the original (1) Normal seedlings include those cotyledon tissue remaining attached to that have: (i) A primary root or a set the seedling; (i) & primary root or ad- of secondary or adventitious roots suii. ventitious or secondary roots suficient to cient to anchor the seedling when grown anchor the seedling when grown in soil in soil or sand, provided the stem is not or sand, provided the hypocotyl is ap- badly shortened; (ii) a fairly well-deproximately of normal length; (ii) & veloped stem with no prominent breaks fairly well-developed hypocotyl with no or deep lesions which might interfere prominent breaks or deep lesions (Healed with the conducting tissues; (ii) & terbreaks, sometimes referred to as knees, minal bud with at least one first leaf and are to be considered as normal, provided an intact growing point; (iv) two shoots, the seedling is not spindly); (iv) spirally provided the seedling appears vigorous twisted and curled roots and hypocotyl and at least one of the shoots has & held within the tough seedcoat, causing normal epicotyl and root; (v) slight delayed development, but are otherwise infection by fungi, provided the essennormal; (v) slight infection caused by tial seedling parts have not been serifungi or bacteria, provided the essential ously damaged and appear to be able to structures have not been seriously dam- carry on their normal functions at the aged and appear to be able to carry on time of evaluation; or (v) at least one their normal functions at the time of complete cotyledon or two broken cotyleevaluation. (If a few seedlings with dons with half or more of the cotyledon total or partial decay of the plumule are tissue remaining attached to the seedling. found, they may be counted as normal, (2) Abnormal seedlings include those provided the hypocotyl and root are well

that have: (1) No primary root or welldeveloped. The plumules on such seed- developed secondary or adventitious lings usually do not decay when grown roots; (ii) a malformed stem, which may under greenhouse conditions where the be characterized by severe open splits, cotyledons open up naturally and are and curled, shortened, or thickened deexposed to a dry environment and sun

velopment; (iii) no epicotyl, or an epilight. However, if there are many seed- cotyl without the terminal bud; (iv) lings with decayed plumules in a test, a two shoots both of which appear weak retest should be made and such seedlings and spindly, often partially broken away evaluated cautiously).

from the cotyledons; (v) decay caused (2) Abnormal seedlings include those

by the spread of organisms from the that have: (i) No primary leaves or cotyledons of the developing seedling; terminal bud (baldheads); (11) no pri- (vb) part of one cotyledon or two broken mary leaves, but with a terminal bud

cotyledons with less than half of the (snakeheads or partial baldheads); (iii) cotyledon tissue remaining attached; or no primary leaves, but terminal bud

(vii) various combinations of the abnor. present and axillary buds in one or both malities described. of the cotyledons (partial baldheads); (c) Cowpeas, lupines, peanuts, soy(iv) part of one cotyledon or two broken beans and asparagusbeans. A completely cotyledons with less than half the origi- normal seedling of the above-mentioned nal tissue remaining attached;(v) a mal. kinds should have a well-formed root formed hypocotyl, which may be char- with or without secondary or adventiacterized by open splits, or one that tious roots, a strong and fairly long appears curled, shortened, or thickened; hypocotyl with two attached and open (vl) no primary root or well-developed cotyledons, two well-developed primary set of adventitious or secondary roots; or leaves, and an intact terminal bud or various combinations of the abnormali- epicotyl. tles described in this subparagraph.

(1) Normal seedlings include those (b) Broadbean, runner bean, velvet- that have: (i) A primary root or a set of bean, chickpea, field pea, garden pea, secondary or adventitious roots suficient roughpea, lentil, and vetches. In this to anchor the seedling when grown in group a perfectly normal seedling should soil or sand, provided the hypocotyl 18 have a well-formed root, with or without normal; (11) a fairly well-developed by. secondary or adventitious development, pocotyl with no prominent breaks or a strong epicotyl with fairly long stem, deep lesions which might interfere with a well-developed epicotyl with the leaves the conducting tissues; (ill) & plumule and terminal bud intact, and attached with at least one leaf and an intact cotyledons.

growing point; or (iv) slight infection by

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fungi, provided the essential seedling parts have not been seriously damaged and appear to be able to carry on their normal functions at the time of evaluation,

(2) Abnormal seedlings include those that have: (i) No primary root or no well-developed secondary or adventitious roots; (ii) a malformed hypocotyl which may be curled, shortened, or thickened or have severe open splits; (iii) no epicotyl, or one without the growing point, with or without leaves; (iv) decayed epicotyl, provided the decay has spread from the rotted cotyledons of the developing seedling; or (v) various combinations of the abnormalities described in this subparagraph.

(d) Alfalja, alyceclover, beggarweed, black medic, burclovers, buttonclover, clovers, crotalarias, crownvetch, guar, hairy indigo, kidzu, lespedezas, sainfoin, sesbania, sourclover, sweetclovers, trefoils. By the end of the germination test a perfectly normal seedling should have a long, slender root, usually with root hairs, a long hypocotyl, two attached cotyledons which have opened, and an intact epicotyl or growing point.

(1) Normal seedlings include those that have: (i) A long, slender root, usually with root hairs; (ii) slightly stubby roots on blotter tests of sweetclovers, provided the seedling is otherwise normal; (iii) roots slightly stubby from being held back by the attached seedcoat, provided the seedling is otherwise normal; (iv) short splits on the roots, provided the split does not extend into the central conducting tissues of the hypocotyl, and provided further that root hairs are present and the seedling is normal in other respects; (v) a long, well-developed hypocotyl which may have slight cracks or breaks, provided they do not extend into the conducting tissues; (vi) at least one cotyledon, provided the epicotyl is also present; or (vii) slight infection by fungi, provided none of the essential seeding structures have been damaged.

(2) Abnormal seedlings include those that have: (i) Stubby roots, usually associated with shortened hypocotyl; (ii) longitudinal, deep splits on the roots, extending into the conducting tissues of the hypocotyls; (iii) deep cracks or breaks in the hypocotyl which extend into the conducting tissues; (iv) both cotyledons broken off; (v) one cotyledon broken off if the epicotyl is also

absent; (v) rotted cotyledons, provided the decay did not spread to the seedling from an adjacent seed or was not the result of improper test conditions; (vii) A spindly, watery hypocotyl, provided it is not the result of excess moisture in the substrata (usually seedlings of this type have one or more abnormalities of the essential structures, such broken cotyledons or deep splits in the hypocotyl); or (viii) various combinations of the abnormalities described in this subparagraph. [20 FR 7934, Oct. 21, 1955, as amended at 22 FR 4911, July 12, 1957; 25 FR 8772, Sept. 13, 1960; 30 FR 7891, June 18, 1965; 32 FR 12781, Sept. 6, 1967) 8 201.56-7 Lily family (Liliaceae).

Kinds of seed: Asparagus, chives, leek, onion, and Welsh onion.

(a) Chives, onion, Welsh onion, and leek. By the end of the test period a perfectly normal onion or leek seedling should have a long, slender root with a thickened area where it is joined to the hypocotyl, and a long, green cotyledon with a definite loop or bend, often referred to as the “knee".

(1) Normal seedlings include those that have: (i) A well-developed, long, slender root, with or without root hairs; (ii) a long, green, leaf-like cotyledon, with a well-developed bend or “knee" or (iii) slight infection by fungi, provided none of the essential seedling structures have been damaged.

(2) Abnormal seedlings include those that have: (i) A thickened hypocotyl with no root, or a stubby root, (ii) a very short cotyledon associated with a poorly developed root, (iii) a rly developed leaf-like cotyledon without a definite bend or "knee", (iv) a spindly, watery cotyledon, often associated with slowness in sprouting, and one or more other abnormalities, (v) a rotted cotyledon, provided the decay is not the result of improper test conditions, or (vi) various combinations of the abnormalities described in this subparagraph.

(b) Asparagus. By the end of the test period a normal asparagus seedling should have a long, slender root, a fairly long epicotyl, an intact terminal bud, and the seedling should not be broken away from the cotyledon.

(1) Normal seedlings include those that have: (i) A long, slender root; (ii) a long, well-developed epicotyl with terminal growing point; (iii) the cotyledon attached to the seedling; or (iv) slight infestation by fungi, provided none of the essential seedling structures have been damaged.

(2) Abnormal seedlings include those that have: (i) No root, or a very stubby root with weak secondary root development; (ii) a malformed epicotyl, which may be thickened, shortened, or twisted; (iii) no terminal growing point or bud; (iv) cotyledon broken away from the seedling; (v) decayed epicotyl, provided the decay is not the result of improper test conditions; or (vi) various combinations of the abnormalities described in this subparagraph. (20 FR 7935, Oct. 21, 1955, as amended at 25 FR 8772, Sept. 13, 1960; 26 FR 10035, Oct. 26, 1961) $ 201.56-8 Flax family (Linaceae).

(a) Kind of seed: Flax.

(b) By the end of the germination test a normal flax seedling should have a well-developed primary root, a long hypocotyl, two intact cotyledons, and a small epicotyl.

(1) Normal seedlings include those that have: (i) A long, slender root, usually with root hairs; (ii) a short or stubby primary root, provided secondary root development is strong and the hypocotyl is of normal length or approximately so; (iii) a long, well-developed hypocotyl with no breaks or lesions extending into the conducting tissues; (iv) at least one attached cotyledon, provided the epicotyl is not injured; (v) variously broken or cracked cotyledons, provided the other seedling parts appear normal; or (vi) slight infection by fungi, provided none of the essential seedling structures have been damaged.

(2) Abnormal seedlings include those that have: (i) A stubby or no primary root, provided the secondary root development is weak, a condition usually associated with a shortened hypocotyl; (ii) a malformed hypocotyl, which may be twisted, thickened, or shortened; (iii) deep cracks or lesions on the hypocotyl, extending into the conducting tissues; (iv) both cotyledons broken off; (v) one cotyledon broken off if the epicotyl is also injured (vi) decayed cotyledons or other essential seedling structures, provided the decay is not the result of improper test conditions; or (vii) various combinations of the abnormalities described in this subparagraph. [20 FR 7935, Oct. 21, 1955)

8 201.56–9 Mallow family (Malvaceae).

(a) Kinds of seed: Cotton and okra.

(b) By the end of the germination test a perfectly normal seedling should have a long, well-developed root with root hairs, a long hypocotyl, two attached green leaflike cotyledons, and a small epicotyl.

(1) Normal seedlings include those that have: (i) A well-developed, long, slender root, usually with root hairs; (ii) no primary root but strong secondary roots, provided the hypocotyl is of normal or approximately normal length; (iii) a long, well-developed hypocotyl with no breaks or deep grainy lesions which might interfere with the conducting tissues; (iv) at least one cotyledon and intact epicotyl; (v) slight infection by fungi, provided none of the essential seedling structures have been damaged; or (vi) yellowish hypocotyls or roots of cotton which may appear diseased, provided the cotyledons are free of infection (the seedcoat must be peeled back on young seedlings to determine this condition of the cotyledons).

(2) Abnormal seedlings include those that have: (i) No root or very stubby roots, usually associated with a shortened hypocotyl; (ii) stubby roots and a thickened hypocotyl resulting from chemical treatment of seed, such as often occurs on delinted cottonseed; (iii) malformed hypocotyl, which may be curled, thickened, or shortened; (iv) deep cracks or grainy lesions on the hypocotyl which appear to interfere with the conducting tissues; (v) epicotyl absent, even though one or both cotyledons are attached; (vi) decayed cotyledons and hypocotyl, provided the decay did not spread from another seed or was not the result of improper test conditions; or (vii) various combinations of the abnormalities described in this subparagraph. [20 FR 7935, Oct. 21, 1955) & 201.56–10 Spurge family (Euphor

biaceae). Kind of seed: Caster bean.

(a) Normal seedlings include those that have:

(1) A primary root or a set of secondary or adventitious roots sufficient to anchor the seeding when grown in soil or sand, provided the hypocotyl is not badly shortened;

(2) A fairly well-developed hypocotyl with no prominent breaks or stem lesions

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