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(2) A lamb which has conformation (e) Cull. (1) Typical Cull grade equivalent to at least the midpoint of lambs are extremely rangy, angular, and the Good grade may have a develop- thin-fleshed and extremely narrow and ment of anish equivalent to the mini- shallow bodied. Shoulders and hips are mum for the upper one-third of the very prominent. The legs are extremely Utility grade and remain eligible for small and thin and present a very conGood. Also, & development of finish cave appearance. In handling, the bones which is superior to that specifed as of the shoulders, backbone, bips, and ribs minimum for the Good grade may com- are extremely prominent and the entire pensate for a development of conforma- bony framework is very evident. The tion which is inferior to that specified general appearance is that of low quality. for Good on the basis of one-half grade The relative proportion of meat to bone of superior finish for one-third grade of is quite low, joints appear large, and deficient conformation as indicated in the the body is very unsymmetrical. following example: A lamb which has & (25 FR. 4424, May 19, 1960) development of finish equivalent to the midpoint of the Good grade may have

& 53.134 Specifications for official U.S.

standards for grades of slaughter conformation equivalent to the minimum

yearlings and sheep (quality). for the upper one-third of the Utility grade and remain eligible for Good. How- (a) Prime. (1) Slaughter sheep older ever, in no instance may a lamb be graded than yearlings are not eligible for the Good which has a development of con

Prime grade. formation inferior to that specified as (2) Yearling sheep possessing the minminimum for the Utility grade.

imum requirements for the Prime grade (d) Utility. (1) Lambs meeting the

are moderately lowset and blocky and minimum requirements for the Utilty

thick-fleshed. They are moderately wide grade are very rangy and angular. They over the back, loin, and rump. Shoulare very thin-fleshed, very narrow over

ders and hips are usually moderately the back, loin, and rump, and very shal

smooth. The twist is moderately deep low in the twist. The hips are very

and full, and the legs are moderately prominent and the shoulders are usually large and plump. There is a rather disopen, rough, and prominent. The legs

tinct fullness or plumpness evident over are very small and thin, and present a

the crops, loins, and rump which conslightly concave appearance. Regard

tributes to a well-rounded appearance. less of age, Utility lambs show no visible

There is a slightly thick fat covering over evidence of fat covering. In handling,

the back, ribs, loin, and rump. In hanbones of the shoulders, backbone, hips,

dling, the backbone and ribs are hardly and ribs are very prominent Utility

discernible. Prime slaughter yearling grade lambs are of rather low quality.

sheep exhibit evidences of rather high The bones and joints are proportionately

quality. The bones tend to be proporlarge and the body is very rough and

tionately small, the joints tend to be unsymmetrical.

smooth, and the body tends to be trim, (2) A lamb which has conformation

smooth, and symmetrical. equivalent to at least the midpoint of the

(3) To qualify for the Prime grade, a Utility grade may have & development

yearling must possess the minimum qualof finish equivalent to the minimum for

ifications for finish regardless of the exthe upper one-third of the Cull grade

tent that its conformation may exceed and remain eligible for Uhlity. Also, &

the minimum requirements for Prime. development of finish which is superior

However, a development of finish which to that specified as minimum for the

is superior to that specified as minimum Utility grade may compensate for a

for the Prime grade may compensate, on development of conformation which is

an equal basis, for a development of coninferior to that specified for Utility on

formation which is inferior to that specithe basis of one-half grade of superior

fied for Prime as indicated in the followfinish for one-third grade of deficient

ing example: A yearling which has a conformation as indicated in the follow

development of finish equivalent to the ing example: A lamb which has a devel

mid-point of the Prime grade may have opment of Anish equivalent to the mid

conformation equivalent to the midpoint of the Utility grade may have con

point of the Choice grade and remain formation equivalent to the minimum for

eligible for Prime. However, in no inthe upper one-third of the Cull grade

stance may a yearling be graded Prime and remain eligible for Utility.

134 F.R. 243, Jan. 8, 1969.

which has a development of conforme- slightly narrow over the back, loin, and tion inferior to that specified as mini. rump. Hips and shoulders are modermum for the Choice grade.

ately prominent. The twist is slightly (4) Yearlings which are otherwise ell- shallow and the legs slightly small and gible for the Prime grade but which have thin. Yearling sheep bave slightly more excessive external fat are not eligible for than a moderately thin fat covering over Prime.

the back, loin, and upper ribs. In han(b) Choice. (1) Slaughter sheep pos- dling, the shoulders, backbone, hips, and sessing the minimum requirements for ribs are rather prominent. Mature the Choice grade tend to be slightly low- sheep have a slightly thin fat covering set and blocky and thick-fleshed. They over the back, ribs, and loin. In han. tend to be slightly wide over the back, dling, the bones of the shoulders, backloin, and rump. The shoulders and bips bone, hips, and ribs are slightly promiare usually slightly smooth but may nent. Sheep of this grade may present show a slight tendency toward promi- evidences of slightly low quality. The nence. The twist tends to be slightly body is somewhat lacking in symmetry deep and full and the legs tend to be and smoothness. slightly thick and plump. Yearling

(2) A sheep which has conformation sheep have a slightly thin fat covering

equivalent to at least the mid-point of over the back, ribs, loin, and rump. In the Good grade may have a development handling, the backbone and ribs are

of finish equivalent to the minimum for readily discernible. Mature sheep have

the upper one-third of the Utility grade & slightly thick fat covering over the and remain eligible for Good. Also, a deback, ribs, loin, and rump. In handling,

velopment of finish which is superior to the backbone and ribs are slightly dis

that specified as minimum for the Good cernible. Choice slaughter sheep usual- grade may compensate for a development ly present a moderately refined appear- of conformation which is inferior to that ance,

specified for Good on the basis of one(2) A sheep which has conformation

half grade of superior finish for oneequivalent to at least the midpoint of third grade of deficient conformation as the Choice grade may have a develop- indicated in the following example: A ment of finish equivalent to the mini- sheep which has evidences of finish mum for the upper one-third of the

equivalent to the mid-point of the Good Good grade and remain eligible for

grade may have conformation equivalent Choice. Also, a development of finish to the minimum for the upper one-third which is superior to that specified as of the Utility grade and remain eligible minimum for the Choice grade may for Good. However, in no instance may compensate, on an equal basis, for a

a sheep be graded Good which has a dedevelopment of conformation which is

velopment of conformation inferior to inferior to that specified for Choice as that specified as minimum for the Utility indicated in the following example: A grade. sheep which has a development of finish

(d) Utility. (1) Slaughter sheep meetequivalent to the mid-point of the

ing the minimum requirements for the Choice grade may have conformation Utility grade are very rangy and anguequivalent to the mid-point of the Good lar. They are very thin-fleshed, very grade and remain eligible for Choice.

narrow over the back, loin, and rump, However, in no instance may a sheep

and very shallow in the twist. The hips be graded Choice which has a develop

are very prominent and the shoulders are ment of conformation inferior to that

usually open, rough, and prominent. specified as minimum for the Good

The legs are very small and thin and pregrade. (3) Yearlings which are otherwise eli

sent a slightly concave appearance. Regible for the Prime grade but which

gardless of age, Utility grade slaughter have excessive external fat are included sheep show no visible evidences of fat in the Choice grade. Sheep which are covering. In handling, the bones of the otherwise eligible for the Choice grade shoulders, backbone, hips, and ribs are but which have excessive external fat so thinly covered that they are very are not eligible for Choice.

prominent. Utility grade slaughter (c) Good. (1) Slaughter sheep pos- sheep are of rather low quality. The sessing the minimum requirements for bones and joints are proportionately the Good grade are slightly rangy and large and the body is very rough and upstanding and thin-fleshed. They are unsymmetrical.

(2) A sheep which has conformation equivalent to at least the mid-point of the Utility grade may have a development of finish equivalent to the minimum for the upper one-third of the Cull grade and remain eligible for Utility. Also, a development of finish which is superior to that specified as minimum for the Utility grade may compensate for a development of conformation which is inferior to that specified for Utility on the basis of one-half grade of superior finish for one-third grade of deficient conformation as indicated in the following example: A sheep which has a development of finish equivalent to the midpoint of the Utility grade may have conformation equivalent to the minimum for the upper one-third of the Cull grade and remain eligible for Utility.

(e) Cull. (1) Typical Cull grade sheep are extremely rangy, angular, and thin-fleshed and extremely narrow and shallow bodied. Shoulders and hips are very prominent. The legs are extremely small and thin and present a very concave appearance. In handling, the bones of the shoulders, backbone, hips, and ribs are extremely prominent and the entire bony framework is very evident. The general appearance is that of low quality. The relative proportion of meat to bone is quite low, joints appear large, and the body is very unsymmetrical. (26 P.R. 1426, May 19, 1960) § 53.135 Specifications for official U.S.

standards for grades of slaughter

lambs, yearlings, and sheep (yield). (a) Yield Grade 1. (1) Yield Grade 1 slaughter lambs, yearlings, and sheep produce carcasses which have very high yields of boneless retail cuts. Ovines with characteristics qualifying them for the lower limits of Yield Grade 1 (near the borderline between Yield Grade 1 and Yield Grade 2) will differ considerably because of inherent differences in the development of their muscling and skeletal systems and related differences in fatness.

(2) Very thickly muscled ovines typical of the minimum of this grade have a high proportion of lean to bone. They are moderately wide and usually the width through the shoulders and legs is greater than through the back. The top is wellrounded with no evidence of flatness and the back and loin are moderately full and plump. The legs are moderately large and plump and the width through the middle part of the legs is greater than through the back. The shoulders and hips are

slightly prominent. These ovines have only a thin covering of external fat over the back and loin and a slightly thick covering of fat over the rump and down over the ribs. They are shallow through the flanks and the brisket and cod or udder have little evidence of fullness. In handling, the backbone, ribs, and ends of bones at the loin edge are moderately prominent. A carcass produced from slaughter ovines of this description might have 0.1 inch of fat over the ribeye and a low Prime leg conformation grade.

(b) Yield Grade 2. (1) Yield Grade 2 slaughter lambs, yearlings, and sheep produce carcasses with high yields of boneless retail cuts. Ovines with char. acteristics qualifying them for the lower limits of Yield Grade 2 (near the borderline between Yield Grade 2 and Yield Grade 3) will differ considerably because of inherent differences in the development of their muscling and skeletal systems and related differences in fatness.

(2) Very thickly muscled ovines typical of the minimum of this grade have a high proportion of lean to bone. They are wide through the back and loin and have slightly greater width through the shoulders and legs than through the back. The top is well-rounded with little evidence of flatness and the back and loin are full and plump. The legs are large and plump and the width through the middle part of the legs is slightly greater than through the back. The shoulders and hips are slightly smooth. These ovines have a slightly thin layer of external fat over the back and loin and a thick covering of fat over the rump and down over the ribs. They are slightly shallow through the flanks and the brisket and cod or udder are slightly full. In handling, the backbone, ribs and ends of bones at the loin edge are readily discernible. A carcass produced from slaughter ovines of this description might have 0.2 inch of fat over the ribeye and an average Prime Leg conformation grade.

(3) Thinly muscled ovines typical of the minimum of this grade have a relatively low proportion of lean to bone. They tend to be slightly narrow over the back, loin, and rump. The legs tend to be slightly small and thin and the width over the back is slightly greater than through the legs. The shoulders and hips tend to be moderately prominent. These ovines have a thin covering of external fat over the back and loin and a moderately thick covering of fat over the

rump and down over the ribs. They tend ovines of this description might have 0.25 to be slightly shallow through the flanks. inch of fat over the ribeye and a low The brisket and cod or udder have little Choice leg conformation grade. evidence of fullness. In handling, the (d) Yield Grade 4. (1) Yield Grade 4 backbone, ribs, and ends of the bones slaughter lambs, yearlings, and sheep at the loin edge are moderately prom- produce carcasses with moderately low inent. A carcass produced from slaughter yields of boneless retail cuts. Ovines with ovines of this description might have characteristics qualifying them for the 0.15 inch of fat over the ribeye and high lower limits of Yield Grade 4 (near the Good leg conformation grade.

borderline between Yield Grade 4 and (c) Yield Grade 3. (1) Yield Grade 3 Yield Grade 5) will differ considerably slaughter lambs, yearlings, and sheep because of inherent differences in the produce carcasses with intermediate development of their muscling and yields of boneless retall cuts. Ovines with skeletal systems and related differences characteristics qualifying them for the in fatness. lower limits of Yield Grade 3 (near the (2) Very thickly muscled ovines typborderline between Yield Grade 3 and ical of the minimum of this grade have Yield Grade 4) will differ considerably a high proportion of lean to bone. They because of inherent differeences in the are extremely wide through the back and development of their muscling and skel- loin and are slightly wider over the top etal systems and related differences in than through the shoulders and legs. fatness.

The back and loin are extremely full (2) Very thickly muscled ovines typ- and plump. The legs are extremely large ical of the minimum of this grade have and plump. The shoulders and hips are a high proportion of lean to bone. They smooth. These ovines have a moderately are very wide through the back and loin thick covering of fat over the back and and are uniform in width from front to loin, and an extremely thick covering rear. The top is nearly flat with only a of fat over the rump and down over the slight tendency toward roundness. The ribs. The flanks are moderately deep and back and loin are very full and plump. full and the brisket and cod or udder The legs are very large and plump. The are full. In handling, the backbone, ribs, shoulders and hips are moderately and ends of bones at the loin edge are smooth. These ovines have a slightly slightly discernible. A carcass produced thick covering of fat over the back and from slaughter ovines of this description loin and a very thick covering of fat over might have 0.4 inch of fat over the ribthe rump and down over the ribs. The eye and a high Prime leg conformation flanks are slightly deep and full and the grade. brisket and cod or udder are moderately (3) Thinly muscled ovines typical of full. In handling, the backbone, ribs, and the minimum of this grade have a relaends of bones at the loin edge are mod- tively low proportion of lean to bone. erately discernible. A carcass produced They tend to be moderately wide over from slaughter ovines of this description the back, loin, and rump. The legs tend might have 0.3 inch of fat over the ribeye to be moderately thick and plump. They and a high Prime leg conformation grade. are wider over the back than through

(3) Thinly muscled ovines typical of the legs. The shoulders and hips are the minimum of this grade have a rela- slightly smooth. These ovines have a tively low proportion of lean to bone. slightly thick covering of external fat They tend to be slightly wide over the over the back and loin and a very thick back, loin and rump. The legs tend to be covering of fat over the rump and down slightly thick and plump. The width over over the ribs. The flanks are slightly the back is moderately greater than deep and full. The brisket and cod or through the legs. The shoulders and hips udder are moderately full. In handling, are slightly prominent. These ovines have the backbone, ribs, and ends of bones at a slightly thin covering of external fat the loin edge tend to be slightly discerniover the back and loin and a thick cover- ble. A carcass produced from slaughter ing of fat over the rump and down over ovines of this description might have the ribs. The flanks tend to be slightly 0.35 inch of fat over the ribeye and an deep and full. The brisket and cod or ud- average Choice leg conformation grade. der are slightly full. In handling, the

(e) Yield Grade 5. Yield Grade 5 backbone, ribs, and ends of bones at the slaughter lambs, yearlings, and sheep loin edge tend to be moderately discern- produce carcasses with low yields of ible. A carcass produced from slaughter boneless retail cuts. Ovines of this grade

consist of those not meeting the minimum requirements of Yield Grade 4 because of either more fat or a lower leg conformation grade or a combination of these characteristics. (34 F.R. 243, Jan. 8, 1969)

PORK CARCASSES & 53.140 Bases for pork carcass stand.

ards. The standards for pork carcasses developed by the United States Department of Agriculture, provide for segregation according to (a) class, as determined by the apparent sex condition of the animal at the time of slaughter, and (b) grade, which reflects quality of pork and the relative proportion of lean cuts to fat cuts in the carcass. (17 F. R. 7364, Aug. 13, 1952] § 53.141 Pork carcass classes.

The five classes of pork carcasses, comparable to the same five classes of slaughter hogs, are barrow, gilt, sow, stag, and boar carcasses. $ 53.142 Application of standards for

grades of barrow and gilt carcasses. (a) Grades for barrow and gilt carcasses are based on two general considerations: (1) Quality-indicating characteristics of the lean, and (2) expected combined yields of the four lean cuts (ham, loin, picnic shoulder, and Boston butt).

(b) With respect to quality, two general levels are considered: One for carcasses with characteristics which indicate that the lean in the four lean cuts will have an acceptable quality and one for carcasses with characteristics which indicate that the lean will have an unacceptable quality. The quality of the lean is best evaluated by a direct observation of its characteristics in a cut surface and when a cut surface of major muscles is available, this shall be used as the basis for the quality determination. The standards describe the characteristics of the loin eye muscle at the 10th rib. However, when this surface is not available, other exposed major muscle surfaces can be used for the quality determination based on the normal development of the characteristics in relation to those described for the loin eye muscle at the 10th rib. When a major muscle cut surface is not available, the quality of the lean shall be evaluated indirectly based on quality-indicating characteristics that are evident in carcasses. These

include firmness of the fat and lean, amount of feathering between the ribs, and color of the lean. The standards describe & development of each of these factors that is normally associated with the lower limit of acceptable lean quality. The degree of external fatness, as such, is not considered in evaluating the quality of the lean.

(c) Carcasses which have characteristics indicating that the lean in the four lean cuts will not have an acceptable quality or bellies too thin to be suitable for bacon production are graded U.S. Utility. Also graded U.S. Utility-regardless of their development of other quality-indicating characteristics—are carcasses which are soft and oily. Belly thickness is determined by an overall evaluation of its thickness with primary consideration being given to the thickness along the navel edge and thickness of the belly pocket.

(d) Four grades—U.S. No. 1, U.S. No. 2, U.S. No. 3, and U.S. No. 4-are provided for carcasses which have indications of an acceptable lean quality and acceptable belly thickness. These grades are based entirely on the expected carcass yields of the four lean cuts and no consideration is given to a development of quality superior to that described as minimum for these grades. The expected yields of the four lean cuts for each of these four grades are shown in Table I:

TABLE I Expected Yields of the Four Lean Cuts Based

on Chilled Carcass Weight, by Grade 1 Grade

Yleid U.S. No. 1

53 percent and over. U.S. No. 2

50 to 52.9 percent. U.S. No. 3..

47 to 49.9 percent. U.S. No. 4.---

Less than 47 percent. 1 These yields will be approximately 1 percent lower if based on bot carcass weight. The yields shown in Table I are based on cutting and trimming methods used by the U.S. Department of Agriculture in developing the standards. (These cutting and trimming methods may be obtained from the Livestock Division, Agricultural Marketing Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Washington. D.C. 20250.) Other cutting and trimming methods may result in different yields. For example, if more fat is left on the four lean cuts than prescribed in the USDA cutting and trimming methods, the yield for each grade will be higher than indicated. However, such a method of trimming, if

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