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Teachers Guides to Television will be an invaluable tool for teachers who are striving to bridge the gap which too often exists between "classroom social studies" and the real world in which young people are living.-Dorothy McClure Fraser, Professor of Education and Coordinator of Social Sciences, Teacher Education Program, Hunter College.

The new Guides are "Super"! They should prove invaluable to our teachers.— Elizabeth E. Marshall, Director, Division of Radio and Television, Chicago Public Schools, Board of Education, City of Chicago.

Your Teachers Guides to Television are very well done. We congratulate you on a fine work that is well organized and detailed.-S. Harlan Ford, Assistant Commissioner for Teacher Education and Instructional Services, Texas Education Agency, State Department of Education, Austin Tex.

Thank you for sending the Teachers Guides to Television. The Guide will be an invaluable aid in teaching learning experiences. The teaching suggestions activities before and after viewing are especially good.-Mrs. Jean Badten Wieman, Supervisor of Learning Resources Services, State of Washington.

In a sometimes overcrowded world of educational materials, the Teachers Guides to Television is, indeed, a refreshing curriculum resource. It will provide, perhaps, the point of entry we need to bring mass media into the classroom, or better, to bring the classroom into the world. The advance information relative to exciting and informative television programs, along with the "teaching suggestions" will allow the creative social studies teacher to unlock a storehouse of meaningful experiences for his students. Again, my congratulations on a significant contribution to the educational community.-H. Mike Hartoonian, Supervisor of Social Studies, Department of Public Instruction, State of Wisconsin, A few minutes ago I had an opportunity to read your first Teachers Guides to Television. If this and future Guides are used effectively by teachers, then I am firmly convinced that the quality of instruction will be improved immeasurably.— William J. Ellena, Deputy Executive Secretary, American Association of School Administration.

I have just read the first issue of Teachers Guides to Television and I am impressed. You have clearly recognized the impact of the television medium on our electronically oriented students. Books are indeed no longer the great preservatives of information! I am, therefore, pleased that you have provided a compact, but detailed means for teachers to use programs on television constructively and creatively.

I congratulate you not only on the excellent format of the Guides, but also on the outstanding nature of the programs selected both in quality and variety. You have provided a needed and valuable educational service for teachers, and in the final analysis, for students as well.-Mrs. Delores Minor, Supervisor, Senior High School English, Division of Curriculum and Educational Research, Detroit Public Schools.

This is a publication that can prove very valuable to the classroom teacher. The advance information, teaching suggestions and discussion outlines will greatly assist the teachers and may encourage many to use the variety of educational experiences that television now offers.-Victor E. Celio, Coordinator, Office of Federal Programs, Department of Public Instruction, Commonwealth of Pennsylvania.

Teachers Guides to Television is a welcome development in attempts to bring the positive values of the mass media into the school. It demonstrates recognition of the relevancy of television in the lives of children. The selections of noteworthy programs, the supplementary bibliography and the question-based suggestions for teacher use are well done.-Dr. Jack Nelson, Professor of Social Science, Rutgers University.

Nobody doubts television is here to stay and Teachers Guides to Television will aid schools in making good use of this important medium. The program selection is discriminative. The teaching suggestions for the programs are provocative and useful.-Dr. Leland Jacobs, Professor of Education, Teachers College, Columbia University.

As instructional materials, Teachers Guides to Television are an outstanding contribution to the curriculum. I am certain they will be well received by the profession. You are to be congratulated for your foresight, energy and originality in designing this resource.-Dr. Morris Gall, Director of Social Studies, Norwalk Public Schools.

Teachers Guides to Television is an important new source of instructional help for teachers. Never before has it been possible to turn to a single source for information that encompasses programs on all the major networks. Through this medium teachers gain advance notice of educationally valuable programs. Particularly helpful are suggestions for pre- and post-viewing activities. This is a commendable new service that will aid the teacher in enriching the school curriculum and at the same time enhance the concept of selective viewing by students who need to become more discriminating in their choice.-Marjorie Gardner, Professor of Science Education, Science Teaching Center, University of Maryland.

[Reprint from Educational Screen and Audiovisual Guide February 1970]

TV GUIDES HELP TEACHERS BUILD LESSONS

(By Robert Cooke)

An outstanding new tool that permits teachers to take advantage of the millions of dollars worth of educationally valuable programs, available on the major networks, has appeared on the educational scene. Television is taking on exciting new meaning as a source of relevant and attention-holding homework for teachers taking full advantage of the new Teachers Guides to Television.

The Guides, which for the first time make available a listing of programs of outstanding educational value on ABC, CBS, NBC and NET at the beginning of the school term, are published twice a year, at the beginning of each semester. They are available by subscription to teachers, schools and school districts. They provide a fast, efficient tool that relates network television to the curriculum and allows teachers to mold exciting lessons around the audiovisual aid in every American home. One teacher has called them “the best drop-out prevention invented."

Here's what a teacher will find in the magazine-size issue reaching the schools in February:

The first order of business is a brief listing of programs of educational value with the date, time, station and a brief description of each show given. The teacher thus has a quick over-view of the coming network television offerings that may fit nicely into lessons plans.

Following the first listing is an expanded, illustrated guide to those programs considered most important in the coming semester. The guide explains each lesson's aim or general focus and supplies comprehensive teaching suggestions for use before viewing, a brief synopsis of the plot and an extensive guide for exploration of the subject after viewing.

Other sections of the Guides help teachers build challenging lessons around current topics in the news such as exploration of the Moon or America's progress and dilemmas in the 70's. An interesting lesson has also been prepared for the exploration of Inner Space during the coming International Oceanographic decade. Important additions to this material include a bibliography of reading material related to the selected shows at levels for both children and young adults plus a listing and description of current films related to the selected topics. With this material in hand, a teacher can prepare students before the program is broadcast so they can view it with more understanding and then enhance that understanding after viewing through use of meaningful discussion.

Teachers Guides to Television is published in cooperation with the Television Information Office. The bibliography is prepared by the American Library Association, and the related film list comes from the Department of Audiovisual Instruction of the National Education Association and Indiana University. The film list is compiled by Dr. Carolyn Guss, professor of education at the University of Indiana Audiovisual Center.1

The Guides' editor, Gloria Kirshner, was formerly responsible for information such as the NBC teachers' guide for "Exploring" and "Profiles in Courage" and the CBS guide for "The 21st Century."

She pointed out that recent research indicates that today's child frequently arrives for his first day of school able to read the basic vocabulary of his favorite television commercials. This, she adds, shows that:

1 Dr. Carolyn Guss is an ES/AVG contributing editor. She and her staff provide our monthly Film Evaluations column.

"Young hands and minds are reaching out. Whether or not growing brains are the end result depends on whether the teacher takes advantage of this moment of reaching to place information in them or whether they come back empty."

She also notes that "by the time he leaves high school, the child will have spent some 10,000 hours in the classroom and 15,000 hours watching television. Can the only result of all this be the one Marshall McLuhan warns of, "When the TV generation arrives they're as likely as not to burn down every school... The discrepancy between the riches of the TV feast and the poverty of the school experience is creating great ferment, friction and psychic violence.'” Teachers Guides to Television are published explicitly to meet this problem. According to Edward Stanley, president, the publication was founded a little more than a year ago and was aimed at pointing out the most useful, most educational television shows for use by the classroom teacher.

He explained, "We try to select programs that teachers can make lessons out of easily. Our main task is allowing the teacher to take advantage of the ubiquity of the television set. Since you find television in even the most decayed tenement, it has become almost a universal teaching tool. In fact, many people, and especially those in the ghettos, get most of their information from television."

Stanley embarked on the Guides project after long experience as head of NBC's public affairs department. He is the originator of "Continental Classroom." The basic idea for Teachers Guides to Television arose while Stanley was affiliated with NBC, and came mainly from his work with teachers guides for the children's show, "Exploring".

"Our response to the teaching aids for 'Exploring' was phenomenal," Stanley said. "We were told that if we got 80,000 responses from our first efforts we would be considered successful. Well, within six weeks, we were mailing out 250,000 copies, and by the time we stopped doing it two years later we had more than 620,000 going out regularly. This proves to us there is a need for the service."

Basically, Stanley said, what he's aiming at "is to make these good television specials more relevant to the child's life, and of course the teachers like to be able to make their classroom lessons more relevant to what the students see at home on television."

The editors of Teachers Guides to Television begin each issue by surveying what the major networks will offer in the coming period, then select the programs that will be broadcast nationally and appear to offer outstanding educational value. Additional research into the problems that will be covered provides the guidance for bringing students' attention to central themes. Providing probing questions for use after viewing leads the students into seeing the programs in the light of their own backgrounds.

"Our Guides seek to help the teacher develop the pupil's ability to evaluate critically the reality presented on television," Stanley added. "Throughout the Guides by including references to Negro history lessons on the deep meanings of democracy, on the values of freedom of thought and speech, justice, honor, human dignity and self respect-we seek to provide a teaching tool of potent force, particularly for teachers in inner-city schools."

The editors of the Guides, however, aren't alone in selecting the programs for coverage. A panel of 14 eminent educators has been named to help and to give advice on special problems that arise. These panel members are Dr. Lawrence Derthick, assistant executive secretary of NEA and former U.S. Commissioner of Education; Dr. J. R. Rackley, vice president, Pennsylvania State University; Dr. Mina Rees, dean of graduate faculty, University of the City of New York; Margaret Stevenson, executive secretary of Assn. of Classroom Teachers; Dr. Edward Pomeroy, executive secretary, American Assn. of Colleges for Teacher Education; Dr. Fred T. Wilhelms, executive secretary of the Assn. for Supervision and Curriculum Development; Dorthy Neubauer, associate executive secretary, Dept of Elementary School Principals; LuOuida Vinson, executive secretary, American Assn. of School Librarians; Gilbert Seldes, critic, former dean of Annenberg School of Communications, University of Pennsylvania; Dr. Robert H. Carleton, executive secretary, National Assn. of Science Teachers; Dr. Merrill F. Hartshorn, executive secretary of the National Council for the Social Studies; Augusta Baker, past president. Children's Services Division of American Library Assn. and coordinator of Children's Services, New York Public Library; Robert F. Hogan, executive secretary, National Council of Teachers of English; Dr. Harold E. Wigren, Associate director of NEA's Division of Educational Technology; Dr. Harold H. Eibling, president-elect, American Assn. of

School Administrators; and Msgr. C. Albert Koob, president of National Catholic Education Assn.

In addition, the response from teachers who receive the Guides has been overwhelming, and to gauge the acceptance among classroom teachers, Stanley sent a questionnaire to a random sampling of 500 recipients.

Although the poll was strictly informal, and not scientific, Stanley said, the results were gratifying. For instance 89% of those responding were enthusiastic about the role of the Guides in stimulating classroom discussion and enriching the learning experience. A decided majority also reported that the Guides motivate further research and exploration of topics covered on television. Some reported, too, that the Guides help promote more discriminating viewing habits for the students.

Stanley further reported that 63% of the teachers reported the Guides help them to become more effective teachers, allowing them to convey to their students some of the deeper meanings of the human experience.

Here is a sample of some of his replies:

"This has been an excellent method of helping teachers help themselves get out of teaching ruts."-Raymond Slusarz, Industrial Arts Dept. head, North Jr. High School, Pittsfield, Mass.

"With television as the most widely-used audiovisual media in the home today, a guide which the teacher and school can usè is a very useful tool in making it an effective educational device."-H. H. Browens, assistant principal, Willard High School, Willard, Ohio.

"Most useful in class and individual or small group assignments. The programming and professional level of presentation is excellent. This is the type of material that competes with the programs on the other channels and encourages selective viewing."-John Dixey, principal, David Brearly High School, Kenilworth, N.J.

"These samples show," Stanley concluded, "that Teachers Guides to Television perform a real service to teachers. It's our way of trying to utilize the one teaching machine most homes have in common-television."

AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS

To: Member Superintendents.

MEMORANDUM

From: Forrest E. Conner, Executive Secretary.

DEAR SUPERINTENDENT: We are all aware that today television is a major source of information for children in school. We have been concerned to find a way in which the facts about the world in which we live can be put to use in the classroom on a regular and planned basis.

An opportunity to do this, inexpensively and in a continuing, systematic way, with counsel and advance planning by educators, is now available. After examination and consideration of its potential for education, we are glad to call it to your attention.

A cooperative venture of the three major networks, represented by the Television Information Office of the National Association of Broadcasters and Teachers Guides to Television, Inc., will make available to schools a new service providing advance program information for the three major networks, and teacher's guides to the outstanding offerings of the semester. This makes it possible to plan lessons in advance.

The guides will place at the disposal of classroom teachers the factual information, in permanent form, that will make it possible for them to take advantage of the combined resources of the ABC, CBS, and NBC networks in bringing some of the frontiers of knowledge, and the talents of the nation's leaders, to homes and classrooms across the country.

Each semester, in conjunction with an advisory panel of outstanding educators, Teachers Guides to Television will select from the audiovisual aids on the networks, fourteen outstanding offerings which qualified educators consider to be of value at several levels in the nation's schools.

A twenty-four page brochure will contain a program schedule and advance information about programs of special interest to educators. There will be Teacher's Guides for fourteen of these programs, including teaching suggestions for before and after viewing, suggested activities, suggestions for further

exploration and a bibliography allowing reading assignments at several levels prepared by the American Library Association. These will be available at the beginning of the school year, to allow teachers and administrators ample opportunity for advance planning. Supplementary contributions from industry, where enrichment materials can be provided for classrooms at no extra cost, will be encouraged.

A panel of outstanding educators will serve as advisers, overseeing the nationwide effort to encourage the utilization of a resource that can provide the motivation for exciting educational innovation, particularly in homes where television is available, but books are not.

Teachers Guides to Television will be under the direction of two experienced people, Mr. Edward Stanley, long Director of Public Affairs for NBC, wellknown to American educators, and Mrs. Gloria Kirshner, whose name will be familiar to classroom teachers as the editor of many brilliantly organized Teachers's Guides.

We believe that this is a practical innovation which can make this inventory of broadcasting a genuine resource for educators.

Mr. BRADEMAS. Our next witness is Mr. C. Sargent Carleton, vice president and education director, National Audio Visual Association, Fairfax, Va.

Mr. Carleton, we will be pleased to hear you.

PRESENTATION OF “EDUCATIONAL MEDIA AND THE COMMUNICATIONS GENERATION" BY C. SARGENT CARLETON, VICE PRESIDENT AND EDUCATION DIRECTOR, NATIONAL AUDIO VISUAL ASSOCIATION, FAIRFAX, VA.

(Three-screen slide/music presentation precedes remarks.)

Mr. CARLETON. There can be joy in learning and discovery, but bringing that joy into today's classrooms requires a combination of creative teaching and creative problem solving. I am going to spend the next few minutes discussing some of the problems that education faces today and I am going to suggest some solutions. The problems and the solution I suggest are tied up in one word-communications. Education is based on the art and science of communicating ideas. But for communication to be effective, teachers and students need to speak the same language. And it is my thesis that today teachers and students are speaking two different languages; and that in addition to the generation gap and the credibility gap there is also a communications gap in our classrooms.

Today's learners are the communications generation. Bombarded from birth with sophisticated programing: Television, hi-fi's, transistor radios, movies-better than ever. And in the process the kids have grown bright, reasonably well informed, and sharply critical of both the messages and the media they are subjected to. As a result, educators today have the increasingly difficult task of both planning a curriculum which will be relevant to the students they serve and then presenting it effectively.

To meet the needs of the communications generation we must use the media the student knows best and will respond to. And, we must use them well. In short, I suggest we have to close the communications gap. It can be done. Here and there it is being done. One way-one way is through the use of modern educational media. The new media permit deep involvement of the learner, involvement of the senses through light, color, sound, and motion.

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