Page images
PDF
EPUB

We point to many individual applications which produce video tape programs not intended for playback on someone else's machine. In applications such as this standardization has no real relevance. The individual or group producing such a video tape for playback on their own machine have not waited for the ideal system. They are too busy using this versatile medium to achieve the results they desire.

Procrastination in obtaining and using a system in the hope of finding an ideal system is self-defeating. If there is a basic advantage to producing a video tape, then standardization is almost unimportant. Concord has a viewpoint on video cassettes, video cartridges, and reel-to-reel systems because we market all three. We would like to place these in perspective that may help to relate them and show their similarities. Video cassettes offer a basic convenience to the user. He simply pops a cassette into the machine and achieves a display almost immediately with minimum effort. On the other hand, reel-to-reel systems offer the user maximum control of program production with editing, special effects, switching, et cetera.

Between these two extremes lies the video cartridge, offering both convenience and control because the cartridge contains a reel that is also usable on a reel-to-reel video recorder. None of these is a panacea for all video recording applications nor was it so intended. Programing of the end result is one of the commonalities of these systems and conversions of programing from one system to another is essentially a simple mechanical function.

a

This is precisely the area where attention is being concentrated among end users. For them, hardware is merely a means to an end, means of realizing their ideas in a picture on a television screen. Concord is committed to providing communications capability because that is what the end user wants, and because if he does not get it, we won't be in business very much longer. However, the means of providing this communications capability are still in the early shakeout stages.

The most acceptable means may be just around the corner on some obscure drawing board. It may never get off that drawing board if a premature freezing of methodology occurs. Every company represented here today is taking a calculated risk that the path that it has chosen will be the one ultimately accepted by the end user.

Some of us may not be here when the dust finally settles, but we have the courage to see it through. It is satisfying and exciting to be in the vanguard of a new industry that is remaking our entire culture. There is also the promise of extremely high returns on investments for those of us who survive. The fact is that we are here and we are committed. Like any newborn infant, the video industry needs proper nourishment and the room to grow before it reaches the productive age.

Let's give it that chance. In our free enterprise system let's allow the standard for our industry to be set in the marketplace by our customer acceptance or rejection of the systems available.

Mr. BRADEMAS. Thank you.

Mr. Yavitz.

(Mr. Yavitz's statement follows:)

TESTIMONY OF ERIC A. YAVITZ, DIRECTOR, EDUCATION MARKETS SALES DEVELOPMENT, MOTION PICTURE & EDUCATION MARKETS DIVISION, EASTMAN KODAK Co., ROCHESTER, N.Y.

Eastman Kodak Company supports and applauds the intent and purpose of H.R. 4916. It is our judgment that technology can and should be used to improve the quality of the educational process, and that applications of technology should be judged on their effectiveness as educational tools, rather than using technology for technology's sake. We therefore endorse the use of the phrase "effective utilization" in the Statement of Purpose of H.R. 4916.

Among the several technologies available to the educator, photography is one of the oldest and best established. Its use in the display of educational information has long been practiced, with effectiveness, through the application of filmstrip and slide projectors and programs, and the usage of motion picture display for those applications where motion is important. These applications have had a long and steady growth, indicating increasing educator acceptance and availability of subject materials.

But even a technology as old and as well-established as photography can produce innovation, both in hardware design and in usage. It is such innovations that we would commend to your attention today. In our display area, we have located the most recent product announced by Eastman Kodak Company for Educational applications. Its official name is the KODAK SUPERMATIC 60 Sound Projector, and it embodies a simple, automatic method for displaying sound and picture information to individuals or groups. It is designed to provide the highest quality color or black-and-white pictures, with or without sound, with simple cassette loading, with capability to stop on a single frame or repeat entire sections for emphasis or reinforcement, and combined with the software economy and portability which the miniaturization of super 8 film affords. The system as displayed affords the advantages of small or large screen display, an existing software producing and duplicating industry, and freedom from the expense and restrictions of dependence on television and on different TV standards around the world. Its medium is super 8 film, available and standard world-wide, and magnetic sound, one of two sound formats widely used in the motion picture industry. This format is recognized by the American National Standards Institute as a standard sound format. Super 8 film can thus produce hardware/software systems that are more economical, more nearly standardized world-wide, less proprietary, and more flexible than any approach to moving-picture information you will have seen here today.

Television display is also an important part of educational technology, and to that end, Eastman Kodak has designed and demonstrated publicly a feasibility model of a super 8 video cassette player, which accepts the same exact film, in the same exact cassette, and displays it on television by connecting to the antenna terminals of a normal TV set, or a closed-circuit system. This capability adds to the flexibility of the super 8 software, and makes it possible to take advantage of TV display when it is justified without restricting the software to TV display alone. Since by the rules of the hearing we were requested to limit our display to one model, we chose to display the existing commercial product rather than the video cassette player feasibility model. We have, however, supporting material on hand for the Subcommittee's information.

So far, we have talked only about the use of technology to display professionally-produced information. However, there is another impact which technology can have in the educational process, and that is student usage of the technology and interaction with it. It is through this mode that photography can provide humanized, individual learning experiences which can, with the help of a skilled teacher, provide not only increases in learning efficiency, but perhaps equally important, increases in pupil self-esteem, growth, and communications ability.

We have in our display area, a short motion picture on drug abuse produced by the third grade of Public School #2, an inner city school in Rochester, N.Y. The quality of production is not exactly a Cecil B. DeMille epic, but when you consider that the movie was devised, created, acted and photographed by 8 and 9 year old kids, with minimal adult supervision, its impact and its sometimes frightening realism becomes apparent. The teacher guiding this assignment notes

significant advancements as a result of this project in communication with the pupils and their parents, interpersonal relationships among the children themselves, and perhaps most importantly, the conversion of some pupils with scholastic and motivational problems into interested students again. All with a $50 camera and perhaps $10 worth of film.

Also in our display area are still pictures taken by youngsters in Rochester schools as part of class projects addressing themselves to various subjects. Again, the result is not only improved learning, but greater pupil interest and involvement, a greater sense of self-worth and a new means of communications— visual communication, which is frequently easier for a youngster to achieve than verbal communications. This is particularly true for the underprivileged child for whom verbal literacy comes hard while visual literacy is an easier mode. The experiences in the Rochester schools are by no means unique, and a good deal of student-made photography is utilized in schools around the country. If we can express one disappointment in the content of H.R. 4916, it is in Title III, where among the items specifically cited as "appropriate technologies and materials," no mention is made of student- or teacher-produced photographic materials either still or motion picture used in learning several subjects—an application of technology to education which is both economical and, from what we hear, highly effective in improving individual teacher/pupil interaction.

We thank the Subcommittee for its time and attention. Eastman Kodak Company is highly interested in applying its resources to the advancement of learning, and offers to work with members of this subcommittee, its representatives, or members of the educational community at large, in order to assist in the attainment of the desirable goals of H.R. 4916.

Mr. YAVITZ. For the record, Mr. Chairman, my name is pronounced Yavitz, Y-a-v-i-t-z.

Mr. Chairman and members of the committee, we support the intent and purpose of H.R. 4916. It is our judgment that technology should be used to improve the quality of educational process and that applications of technology should be judged on their effectiveness as educational tools, rather than using technology for technology's sake.

We, therefore, endorse the use of the phrase "effective utilization" in the statement of purpose of H.R. 4916.

We wish to call to your attention today an alternative technology, one which can be used in video cassettes but has important added dimensions of not being exclusively for television. That technology is photography. Among the several technologies available, photography is the oldest. Its use for display of information has long been practiced through application of film strips, slide projectors and program and motion picture display for those applications where motion is important.

These applications have had a long and steady growth, indicating increased educator acceptance and availability of subject material. But even technology as old and as well established as photography can produce innovation both in hardware design and in usage. It is such innovations that we commend to your attention today.

In our display area we have located the most recent product announced by Eastman Kodak, which is the Kodak supermatic 60 sound projector which embodies a simple automatic projection for individuals or groups. It is designated to provide highest quality color or black and white pictures with or without sound with simple cassette loading with the capability of repeating entire sections, and combined with software economy and portability which miniaturization of super 8 film affords. This affords the advantage of small and large screen dis

play on existing software, freedom from expense, and restrictions of dependence on television and different TV standards around the world. Its medium is super 8 film, available worldwide, and magnetic sound, widely used in the motion picture industry.

Super 8 film can thus produce hardware-software systems that are more economical, less proprietary and more flexible. Television display is also an important part of the educational technology, and to that end, Eastman has designed and demonstrated publicly a feasibility model of a super 8 video cassette player, which accepts the same exact film, in the same exact cassette, and displays it on television by connecting to the antenna terminals of normal TV sets or closed-circuit systems. This capability adds to the flexibility of super 8 software.

So far we have only talked about the use of technology to display professionally produced information. However, there is another impact which technology can have in the educational process, and that is student usage of the technology and interaction with it. We have, in our display area, a short motion picture on drug abuse produced by an innercity school in Rochester, N.Y. But when you consider that the movie was devised, created, acted, and photographed by 8- and 9-year-old kids with minimal adult supervision, its impact and sometimes frightening realism become apparent. The teacher guiding this assignment notes significant advancements as a result of this project in communication with pupils and their parents, interpersonal relationships among children themselves, and perhaps, most importantly, the conversion of some students with scholastic and motivation problems into interested students again. All with a $50 camera and $10 worth of film.

Also in our display areas are still pictures taken by youngsters in Rochester, N.Y. and addressing themselves to various subjects. Again, the result is not only improved learning, but greater pupil interest and involvement, a greater sense of self-worth, and a new means of communication which is frequently easier for a youngster to achieve than verbal communications.

This is particularly true for an underprivileged child for whom verbal literacy comes hard while visual literacy is an easier mode. The experience in the Rochester school is by no means unique.

If we can express one disappointment in the content of H.R. 4916, it is in title III where among items cited as appropriate technology and material, no mention is made for either still or motion pictures used in learning several subjects, an application of technology to education which is both economical and, from what we hear, highly effective in improving individual teacher-pupil interaction.

We thank the subcommittee for its time and attention. Eastman Kodak Co. is highly interested in applying its resources to advancement of learning and offers to work with members of this committee, its representative, the Office of Education or members of the educational community at large in order to assist in attainment of the desirable goals of H.R. 4916.

Mr. BRADEMAS. Thank you, Mr. Yavitz.

Mr. Fried.

(Mr. Fried's statement follows:)

STATEMENT OF RONALD H. FRIED, VICE PRESIDENT, MARKETING, INTERNATIONAL VIDEO CORP.

In order to understand the role that International Video Corporation plays in the field of television communication and how it relates to the fast growing videotape cassette and cartridge playback field, it is necesary to examine briefly the background of the development of the industry.

Videotape recorders first became a reality in April, 1956, when Ampex Corporation startled the broadcasting industry by introducing a new means of storing pictures and playing them back using two-inch wide magnetic tape. Since that time Ampex and RCA, through licensing agreements, have been the major factor in the business of broadcast television recording around the world.

Closed circuit or non-broadcast videotape recording was also pioneered by Ampex when it, a company called Machtronics (now Data Memory, Incorporated) and Sony in Japan introduced smaller compact closed circuit recorders for business, education, medical and government use in 1962. The first recorders were priced at about $14,000 and delivered good quality black and white pictures. Four years later, in 1966, Ampex introduced and began production of its VR-6000 and VR-7000 videotape recorders, using one-inch wide tape, priced in the $3,000 to $5,000 range, and again showing pictures in black and white. The same year Sony also announced a new generation of low-cost black and white recorders in the $1,000 and up price range using half-inch tape.

Another event occurred in 1966 that signified a new approach to television recording.

In that year a new American company, International Video Corporation, located in Sunnyvale, California, introduced its first videotape recorder.

Up to now the new generations of closed circuit videotape recorders were designed for black and white pictures only. The founders of IVC felt that the future of television communications lay not in black and white but color. They knew that in order to be accepted in the closed circuit field color television recording had to be affordable by the educator, the businessman, and the training and medical specialists. Thus, the recorder was designed specifically for color and sold for less than $5,000.

(In addition, the company also introduced, in 1968, the first "low cost" color camera as a companion to its video recorder. It sold for $14,000, compared to $50,000 for any previously offered cameras. Today, the company is one of the three largest producers of color cameras in the world.)

Since the recorder's introduction, the company has built and sold over 10,000 vtr's for use by educational, industrial, medical, cable, and broadcast television, is the dominant force in one-inch color television recording, and since 1970 has become the de facto one-inch standard. IVC one-inch recorders sell from $2,000 to $38,000.

VCR PROGRAM PRODUCTION

In the rapidly expanding business of video cartridge and cassette play back programming for education and industry, IVC currently plays a major role and its posture is leading to still another key role in the field.

As the number of users of VCR's grows the media being used to produce the master or original material from which the multiple VCR copies are made is a matter that requires some consideration.

In a way the requirements for VCR program material are beginning to look as if they will exceed the requirements of broadcast television with its voracious appetite for program material by as much as ten times.

Much of the material already in existence comes from the film medium or twoinch wide videotapes made on higher cost broadcast recorders. Teleproduction and duplicating houses and many educational and industrial institutions have the facilities to transfer this material to one of the new VCR formats-which include 34 and 11⁄2-inch videotape.

Generally speaking the greater the tape width the better the quality of recording. Hence the wider widths are good for mastering and the smaller widths make the new playback techniques more economically suitable for mass markets. Little if any mastering is actually being done on 3⁄4 or 1⁄2-inch tape due to their lower bandwidths.

« PreviousContinue »