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From this report it will also be seen that sanitation is carried on with vigor.

Recruits should be sent to regiments serving in Cuba from the first of November to the latter part of March. This period is a safe one and gives them a certain number of months to become acclimated and greatly increases the chances of avoiding malarial and other fevers prevalent in certain parts of the island.

In July of the past year it was found necessary to withdraw troops from Manzanillo and Bayamo and from the barracks situated in the suburbs of the city of Santiago, because of a serious outbreak of yellow fever. In Puerto Principe, the Fifteenth Infantry and Eighth Cavalry were withdrawn from the barracks in the suburbs of the city and placed in camp about 4 miles distant from the town. This move was also rendered necessary by an outbreak of yellow fever which threatened to become serious.

In the summer of 1899 the yellow fever seemed to be specially prevalent in the eastern provinces. This outbreak can be traced directly to infection from the towns in which, or near which, the barracks were situated. It is not difficult to disinfect barrack buildings and render them, so far as they are concerned, safe for occupancy, but it is impossible to thoroughly disinfect the cities and large towns in which they are situated, hence the necessity for the prompt withdrawal of troops in all cases of yellow fever appearing in barracks situated in towns or cities. In every instance with the withdrawal of troops from the barracks in question and placing them in camps on suitable ground with plenty of air and sunshine the spread of the fever has been promptly stopped. In the western provinces last year there was, as there always is, some fever; also in the city of Habana, and some few other scattered cases in some other towns, but it was not, what is considered in local parlance, a yellow-fever year. However, there is one very suggestive feature, and that is the continuance of a certain number of yellow-fever cases in Habana throughout the winter. This number remained stationary till the latter part of June, when it began to increase until August, when there were present in the city eighty-nine cases. The fever also appeared at Santa Clara, Pinar del Rio, Quemados, Guanajay and Columbia Barracks. At Santa Clara it was persistent and so threatening that the troops were moved out and the barracks abandoned. At Pinar del Rio and Guanajay the outbreak was serious, and temporary abandonment of the posts was only avoided by the troops garrisoning them being sent to the United States. At Columbia Barracks the fever has never made any headway, now and then an isolated case usually among civilians. At Quemados it acquired considerable headway but was finally checked by the vigorous sanitary measures adopted.

Special attention has been given to military instruction and the fine appearance of our soldiers. Their efficiency in drill and the high state of their discipline are conclusive proof that officers have given careful and personal attention toward attaining this degree of efficiency. On account of the climatic conditions existing, indoor instruction, theoretical and practical, has been had during the summer months, and the period from November to March has been set aside for outdoor drill, target practice, practice marches, reconnaissance, and scouting.

All troops intended for service in Cuba should be mounted troops, except necessary batteries of artillery and companies of infantry for

garrison duty at two posts. Infantry engaged in active work in Cuba during the hot and rainy months, and even during the winter, will suffer severely from malaria, heat, and exhaustion, whereas mounted troops can perform hard service without bad results. The work required in Cuba is of such a character that the troops require to have a high degree of mobility. The climatic conditions are such that this mobility must be obtained with as little effort as possible on the part of the troops. My own experience has been that mounted men can do continuous and hard service in Cuba and retain their efficiency and that foot troops can not for any length of time perform duties calling for hard marching and exposure without suffering severely from malaria and the depressing effects of exposure to the sun. This is largely borne out by the experience of the Cubans. It is believed that the same general conditions pertain to Porto Rico and the Philippines, and, if we are to judge from the experience of the past two years and desire to have a thoroughly efficient, highly mobile force in the tropics, we must largely increase the present strength of the cavalry arm.

The work of the Army in connection with civil affairs will be taken up in detail in the civil report.

I desire to express my appreciation of the service of the following officers, especially of Brig. Gen. Adna R. Chaffee, chief of staff, whose faithful and arduous services at these headquarters contributed largely to the reestablishment of the civil government:

Col. W. V. Richards, adjutant-general, whose able, devoted, and unremitting attention to duty rendered his services of the greatest value and finally resulted in a breakdown in health and necessitated his relief from duty in the division.

Col. H. L. Scott, for most able and efficient services as adjutantgeneral of the division.

Maj. J. B. Hickey, for faithful and efficient services rendered in charge of the department of civil orders and proclamations.

Maj. E. St. John Greble, for the marked ability and energy with which he has conducted the reorganization of the charities and hospitals of the island.

Col. George H. Burton, for energetic, efficient, and thorough performance of the duties of inspector-general.

Maj. Edgar S. Dudley, for highly valuable and efficient services as judge-advocate, which involved a deep and thorough study of Spanish law and procedure.

Col. C. F. Humphrey, for efficient and able conduct of the duties of chief quartermaster.

Maj. O. E. Wood, for able and efficient services as chief commissary of subsistence.

Maj. Valery Havard, for able and efficient services as chief surgeon. Maj. Francis S. Dodge, for efficient performance of the duties of chief paymaster.

Maj. William M. Black, for exceedingly able and efficient services in connection with his duties as chief engineer, city of Habana and

later of the division.

Capt. Ormond M. Lissak, for efficient services as chief ordnance officer.

Col. H. H. C. Dunwoody, for painstaking, intelligent, and, as chief signal officer, efficient services in the maintenance and establishment of telegraphic lines of the island.

To Maj. Tasker H. Bliss, for the most excellent and able manner in which he has conducted the customs service, rendering it efficient in the highest degree.

Maj. Eugene F. Ladd, for efficient conduct of the office of treasurer of the island.

Lieut. Edward C. Brooks, for able and efficient services as aid-decamp and later as auditor for the island.

Maj. R. H. Rolfe, for efficient services as assistant inspector-general. Maj. D. T. Lainé, for faithful and efficient services as attending


Maj. Marlborough C. Wyeth, for efficient services as medical supply


Maj. W. C. Gorgas, for arduous and valuable services as chief sanitary officer, city of Habana.

Maj. William L. Pitcher, for extremely valuable and efficient services in charge of the police court, city of Habana, and supervisor of police.

Capt. Fred M. Page, attached, for faithful and able services in the department of civil orders and proclamations.

Capt. Edward B. Ives, for efficient services as disbursing officer and acting assistant quartermaster, volunteer signal corps.

Lieut. Matthew E. Hanna, aid-de-camp, for valuable and efficient services as engineer in charge of road construction, Department of Santiago; ordnance officer of the department and later for efficient and valuable services in the reorganization of schools of the island.

To Lieuts. Frank R. McCoy and Edward Carpenter, aids-de-camp, for faithful, efficient, and intelligent services in connection with civil affairs, in addition to their duties as aids.

To Mr. F. Steinhart, chief clerk, division headquarters, for his most able, faithful, and unremitting devotion to the duties of his office, thereby contributing much to the prompt and efficient conduct of official and civil business; also to the clerks of the office for faithful services and devotion to duty, the performance of which has necessitated throughout the year much overtime work and work on Sundays and holidays.

In conclusion I invite attention to the accompanying reports of the staff officers on duty at these headquarters and to the recommendations contained therein, which meet with my approval.

Very respectfully,

LEONARD WOOD, Major-General, U. S. Volunteers, Commanding.


Matanzas, Cuba, July 22, 1900.


Washington, D. C.

(Through military channels.)

SIR: I have the honor to submit herewith the annual report of affairs, both civil and military, for the Department of Matanzas and Santa Clara, during the fiscal year ending June 30, 1900.

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