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prevent waste of the multitudinous articles furnished by the supply departments. A few well-trained men organized in a service corps to perform the duties in the quartermaster's and commissary departments, now performed by men detailed from the line on special duty, would, in my opinion, vastly increase the efficiency of the administration of these departments in a post, and a great saving result to the Government from better care, use, repair, and prevention of waste of property. The deficit in the present method is most marked when a change of garrison is taking place.”
Lieut. Col. Philip Reade, inspector-general, Department of Dakota, reports as follows in regard to the creation of an indemnity fund:
"The creation and apportionment of an indemnity fund is recIndemnity fund. ommended, out of which to pay for acts of trespass necessarily involved in the execution of field problems, extended-order drill
exercises, etc., outside of military reservations.
"If claims for occupancy, rental, and damages are allowed, the question is asked: 'From what public moneys, what appropriation, is the claim payable?' Assuming that the amounts be paid as ground rental under the head of barracks and quarters, suggestion is made that future appropriations for the support of the Army include an item to be called 'Indemnity fund.' Out of this might be paid all similar claims and damages, including those arising from the practice marches, field maneuvers, etc. "Compliance with the requirements of General Orders, No. 53, Headquarters of the Army, 29th December, 1896, involves devoting at least forty days in each calendar year to practical inctruction of all commands in minor tactics, covering the functions of the three arms in the country surrounding military reservations. Reconnoitering; convoy duty; attack and defense of each arm, or two or three arms combined; night operations; advance, rear, and flank guard duties; actual solution of minor tactics in the field, etc., can not be prosecuted without going beyond the limits of most reservations owned, rented, or occupied by the United States. Private property is trespassed upon; crops are injured; cultivated grounds are encroached upon; fences, gates, etc., are damaged. Claims are also presented for sodding or seeding places where United States troops have dug latrines, sink holes, etc., or built camp fires.
"These facts suggest a renewal of the recommendation that proper estimate be made for a fund to be known as the 'Indemnity fund,' or some similar name.
"The United States can and should maintain a reputation for prompt settlement of claims for compensation for private property occupied, used, damaged, or destroyed by the Army. Prompt reimbursement should be the rule with the United States for damaged crops, broken fences, and like claims."
INSPECTIONS IN THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS.
Of the 71,742 troops inspected and reinspected in the Philippines, 66,137 were consolidated monthly brigade inspections of the First Division, Eighth Army Corps, which were commenced in September, 1899, and continued monthly.
These brigade inspections were inaugurated by the late Maj. Gen. Henry W. Lawton, at that time in command of the division for which the inspections were ordered. General Lawton's former honorable and efficient service in the Inspector-General's Department, together with his herculean and eminently successful labors in other branches of the military service, had doubtless produced qualities of mind that placed him among the van of the brilliant military men of the day, both in the Antilles and Philippines. That the value and importance of frequent inspections of the troops should be so strikingly recognized by an officer of his experience and attainments can only be regarded as another proof of their wisdom and utility. The order issued by General Lawton is as follows:
HDQRS. FIRST DIVISION, EIGHTH ARMY CORPS,
Commanding generals of brigades in this division will, within ten days after receipt of this order, and hereafter between the 15th and 20th of each month, cause a full and complete inspection to be made of all the troops of their commands by the acting brigade inspectors-general.
This inspection will determine the efficiency of the command for field service, and report will be made in detail.
Particular attention will be given the following:
1. Strength of each organization:
(a) Present and absent from department.
2. Condition of arms and accouterments.
3. Amount of ammunition in hands of each company and regiment.
4. Condition and character of clothing, especially shoes.
5. Company kitchens and management of same.
6. Company quarters, tents, or barracks, and condition as to police and sufficiency. 7. Sinks and bathing facilities.
8. Company books and records-how kept.
9. General efficiency of officers and noncommissioned officers.
10. Health and appearance of each command.
11. Instruction in drill regulations and minor tactics-time given to same.
12. Number of men in each regiment of over six months' service.
13. Condition, amount, and kind of transportation in hands of each organization. The attention of acting inspectors-general is directed to 874, Army Regulations, 1895, and to paragraphs 5, 7, and 8 of General Orders, No. 81, Adjutant-General's Office, series 1898.
Inspectors will not only report faults and deficiencies which may be observed, but will state cause of same so far as can be determined, and will recommend a method for correction.
Blanks calling for most of this report can be obtained from the inspector-general of the division.
The "Report of a field inspection" will be completed for each regiment and, with the "Company inspection blank" for each company, will be forwarded through the brigade commander to the adjutant-general of the division.
Similar reports will be made of all organizations detached from their regiments, but serving with the brigade.
These blanks and the provisions of Army Regulations and the General Orders quoted above will be made to apply as far as possible to the field conditions now existing.
By command of Major-General Lawton:
CLARENCE R. EDWARDS,
The following table shows these brigade inspections in detail-organizations, date of inspection, by whom made, and aggregate strength:
In making these consolidated brigade inspection reports the inspector states that only such matters were reported as were cause for comment, either favorable or adverse, and all others reported as normal were omitted. The reports generally indicate fairly excellent military bearing and appearance of troops and satisfactory state and progress of discipline. Many of the company organizations of the United States Volunteers are commanded by very young officers, acquiring and not possessing experience; thus throwing the burden of officer's work upon a comparatively few of experience and upon the battalion and the regimental commanders. Some of the organizations are reported to have a large proportion of enlisted men of apparent military experience, who displayed alertness and familiarity with their weapons and equipment. The reports generally indicate fairly satisfactory conditions in regard to health, the men looking in good health and ready for field service. Some regiments
are reported in better health than others, due to the hardships and exposure of active work, which may not be shared alike in all cases. Constant wetting is claimed to have worn out the men's shoes very fast, and in some cases a lack of suitable foot covering has been reported.
The instruction in some cases is not reported entirely satisfactory, owing generally to the conditions of service, which is performed sometimes under many and great disadvantages, resulting from frequent rain and seas of mud. The large percentage of recruits presented difficulties of considerable magnitude also in the matter of instruction, and the prescribed drills may not have been regularly and persistently held in all organizations, on account of other exacting duties; but doubtless everything that is possible is being done to remedy all existing defects of this nature. Indeed, instituting these brigade inspectors, which were asked for but not granted in the law authorizing recent volunteers, indicates how strenuous was the need and effort to train our troops and prepare them for the work soon entered upon and done so well, and culminating in the soldierly close of the career of General Lawton, honored among the soldiers of his nation.
The following extract from one of these inspection reports may be of interest: "The fact that this regiment has but eleven vacancies in its ranks, and the men remain in good and rugged health after two months' stay in the islands, speaks a great deal in favor of the excellent management and administration of regimental and company officers. All requirements as to shoes, clothing, first-aid packets, hand litters, etc., have been complied with. Such good results can only be obtained by efficient officers and well-instructed noncommissioned officers. Six hundred and thirty-eight men had seen over six months' service prior to this enlistment. During the inspection Companies E and F were directed to man the trenches, each officer and enlisted man having a position assigned him in case of alarm. The companies were in ranks when the alarm was sounded. Company E required only one minute and Company F but fifty-five seconds to get into position to meet an attack."
The reports indicate a highly satisfactory condition in a number of regiments and an excellent tone. The shelter is not reported satisfactory in all cases. Some of the troops at date of inspection were found in barracks, some in nipa huts; others in tents, some of which were not floored; others in houses and shacks, and a few in churches and convents. The advisability of erecting quarters at all stations of troops likely to be permanent should receive consideration, if it has not already; as it would possibly entail the least expense, when the health of the soldier and the cost of tents and flooring are considered.
The transportation is generally reported good of its kind, though the allowance is occasionally reported inadequate. The practice of boiling the drinking water appears to be very generally observed by or at least carefully urged upon the troops. It is obtained from various sources, such as distilled water from Manila; well, river, and rain water; springs, and the San Mateo River. The condition of uniforms, arms, accouterments, and equipments is generally reported fairly satisfactory. Some of the uniforms are reported as showing much wear from hard service, but the necessary steps had been or were being taken to obtain a new supply. The quartermaster, commissary, ordnance, and medical supplies are usually reported good and sufficient.
The inspections in the Philippine Islands, both by officers of the regular establishment and those specially detailed for the purpose, have been very thorough; and the reports indicate that the inspectors have given their very best energies to the work, which in campaign involves far more for them than inspection alone, and has been prosecuted with the utmost vigor under any and all circumstances, rain or shine, entailing all the hardships and dangers of service during an active campaign, and involving exposure in inclement weather and travel over trails, bridle paths, and muddy roads. The first inspector-general on General Lawton's staff in the Philippines has been promoted under a commission in a volunteer regiment, but, of course, still holding his commission in his regular regiment.
INSPECTIONS IN CUBA AND PORTO RICO.
During the past year the changes in the military conditions in the Division of Cuba have been rapid and continuous. At the beginning of the fiscal year there were, approximately, 15,000 troops in the island; the division consisted of four military departments; the troops there numbered 10 full regiments and 1 fractional regiment, footing up 132 company organizations, divided among the three arms as follows, viz, 48 cavalry, 12 artillery, and 72 infantry; and the number of places on the island having military garrison was 27. At the close of the fiscal year there were, approximately, 9,000 troops in Cuba; the division had but two military departments; only two full regiments remained, both cavalry, and 8 fractional regiments
with 2 battalions each, numbering in all 91 company organizations, divided among the three arms as follows, viz, 40 cavalry, 10 artillery, 40 infantry, and 1 signal corps company. The number of places garrisoned at the close of the year was 23, being a reduction of 4. And further reductions are anticipated.
The following table shows the changes reported during the year in the number of troops in Cuba, arm of service, etc.:
All garrisoned points in Cuba were inspected during the fiscal year. The general military conditions there may be sufficiently indicated by the following extracts from the annual reports of inspectors-general and acting inspectors-general.
Col. G. H. Burton, inspector-general, Division of Cuba, states:
Respecting the general bearing, military appearance, discipline, and instruction, the troops visited by the division inspector were found, under the circumstances, to be in a very satisfactory state. Some were more efficient than others, and evinced a better set up and general military appearance, but none of them were unsatisfactory. A number of the cavalry horses at some of the posts were not in good flesh, and gave evidence of want of proper grooming and general good care. These defects were reported to the military governor, and necessary orders given for their correction.
The barracks of the troops visited were generally very neat and clean, and in good sanitary condition.
"The food supplies were found to be ample and well served to the men, from whom there were no complaints. Of course messing here does not compare with that at the posts in the United States, for the facilities are poor, at best, in this country, and the vegetable supply is meager and unsatisfactory.
"The clothing of the men for a warm climate is satisfactory. So far as I could ascertain the officers and men like the chambrey shirts; they are cool, neat in appearance, and very comfortable.
"The arms and equipments of all the men inspected were in excellent condition. "The reports of the few inspections that have come to this office coincide generally with the observations noted above.
All of the officers, so far as this office can judge, who have performed duty in the military departments composing the division have been efficient and zealous in the performance of their work."
Capt. F. S. Foltz, acting inspector-general, Department of Matanzas and Santa Clara, states:
"Fully three-fourths of my time has been occupied with purely civil duties and inspections, due to the work of reconstruction and sanitation and the reorganization of the country.
"This work, while arduous, is only indicated in the very few reports that I had time to write (having been unable to obtain a stenographer).
"The military force in the department consists of the whole of the Second Cavalry, 2 battalions of the Second Infantry, and 2 battalions of the Tenth Infantry.
"This force garrisons 6 seaports and 3 inland towns, and occupies 10 posts and 1 subpost. The subpost and 4 of the others are 1-company stations; 2 are stations for 2 companies; 2 for 4 companies; 1 for 5, and 1 for 6 companies.
"This wide distribution has involved great difficulty in finding the necessary number of officers with experience in money accountability and in the routine of our supply departments, but has been necessary on account of the geographical conditions and the nature of the system of communication.
"The effect of the conditions is shown by the fact that while but two points have to be occupied in the province of Matanzas, there are in the province of Santa Clara 7 towns to be garrisoned.
"Naturally this scattering has made the absence of officers severely felt. The 2 battalions of the Second Infantry have had to garrison 5 posts with their 8 com