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finished product since fill of container, as such, is not a factor of quality for the purposes of these grades. It is recommended that each container be filled with concentrated grapefruit juice as full as practicable without impairment of quality.

FACTORS OF QUALITY

§ 52.3484 Ascertaining the grade.

(a) General. The grade of concentrated grapefruit juice for manufacturing is ascertained by examining the concentrate and the reconstituted juice; and in addition to considering other requirements outlined in the standards, the following quality factors are evaluated:

(1) Factors not rated by score points. (1) Degree of gelation.

(11) Faculty of reconstituting properly. (2) Factors rated by score points. The relative importance of each factor which is scored is expressed numerically on the scale of 100. The maximum number of points that may be given such factors

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color a score of 14 to 16 points may be given. Concentrated grapefruit juice that falls into this classification shall not be graded above U. S. Grade C for Manufacturing or U. S. Standard for Manufacturing, regardless of the total score for the product (this is a limiting rule). "Fairly good color” means that the color may be only fairly bright and is typical of concentrated grapefruit juice that is reasonably free from browning due to scorching, oxidation, caramelization, or other causes.

(c) (SStd-Mfg.) classification. Concentrated grapefruit juice that fails to meet the requirements of paragraph (b) of this section may be given a score of 0 to 13 points and shall not be graded above Substandard for Manufacturing, regardless of the total score for the product (this is a limiting rule).

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(b) (A-Mfg.) classification. Concentrated grapefruit juice of which the reconstituted juice is practicaly free from defects may be given a score of 34 to 40 points. "Practically free from defects" means that there may be present:

(1) Juice cells only in such amounts as do not materially detract from the appearance or drinking quality of the juice;

(2) Not more than 10 percent free and suspended pulp;

(3) Practically no seeds or portions thereof that could not pass readily through round perforations of 1⁄2 inch in diameter;

(4) Only such small seeds or portions thereof that could pass through round perforations of % inch in diameter as do not materially detract from the appearance or drinking quality of the juice; and

(5) Other defects that are not more than slightly objectionable.

(c) (C-Mfg.) classification. If the reconstituted juice is fairly free from defects a score of 28 to 33 points may be given. Concentrated grapfruit juice that falls into this classification shall not be graded above U. S. Grade C or U. 8.

Standard, regardless of the total score For the product (this is a limiting rule). Fairly free from defects" means that here may be present:

(1) Juice cells only in such amounts as do not seriously detract from the apDearance or drinking quality of the juice; (2) Not more than 12 percent free and suspended pulp;

(3) Practically no seeds or portions hereof that could not pass readily through round perforations of 1⁄2 inch n diameter;

(4) Only such small seeds or portions chereof that could pass through round perforations of 8 inch in diameter as do not seriously detract from the appearance or drinking quality of the juice; and

(5) Other defects that are not materially objectionable.

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(a) (A-Mfg.) classification. Concentrated grapefruit juice of which the reconstituted juice possesses a reasonably good flavor may be given a score of 34 to 40 points. "Reasonably good flavor" means that the flavor is typical of reconstituted concentrated grapefruit juice from properly processed and concentrated grapefruit juice; is practically free from traces of scorching, caramelization, oxidation, or terpene; and is free from off-flavors of any kind. To score in this classification the ratio of the Brix value to acid shall be not less than 6 to 1.

(b) (C-Mfg.) classification. If the reconstituted juice possesses a fairly good flavor a score of 28 to 33 points may be given. Concentrated grapefruit juice that falls into this classification shall not be graded above U. S. Grade C for Manufacturing or U. S. Standard for Manufacturing, regardless of the total score for the product (this is a limiting rule). "Fairly good flavor” means a normal flavor for reconstituted concentrated grapefruit juice, which flavor may be slightly caramelized or slightly oxidized or may possess traces of terpene, but is free from off-flavors of any kind. To score in this

classification the ratio of the Brix value to acid shall be not less than 5.5 to 1.

(c) (SStd-Mfg.) classification. If the concentrated grapefruit juice fails to meet the requirements of paragraph (b) of this section a score of 0 to 27 points may be given. Concentrated grapefruit juice that falls into this classification shall not be graded above Substandard for Manufacturing, regardless of the total score for the product (this is a limiting rule).

EXPLANATIONS AND METHODS OF ANALYSIS § 52.3489 Explanation of terms and analyses.

(a) Reconstituted juice. "Reconstituted juice" means the product obtained by mixing thoroughly one part by volume of the concentrated grapefruit juice with a stated volume of water. For example, a dilution factor of "1 plus 6" means that to one part by volume of concentrated grapefruit juice 6 parts by volume of water are added to produce a reconstituted juice. In the absence of any declared dilution factor the product is diluted with water to a Brix of between 10.5 and 11.5 degrees. Distilled water is used in reconstituting the product for testing flavor.

(b) Reconstitutes properly. "Reconstitutes properly" means that the concentrate goes into solution readily; and that in approximately 250 ml. of the reconstituted juice, after standing four (4) hours at a temperature of not less than 68 degrees Fahrenheit in a clear glass cylinder (approximately 14 inches in diameter), there may be a noticeable separation of suspended matter but any resulting zone of greater clarity shall be definitely turbid and not clear or transparent.

(c) Acid. "Acid" means the percent by weight of total acidity, calculated as anhydrous citric acid. Total acidity is determined by titration with standard sodium hydroxide solution, using phenolphthalein as indicator.

(d) Brix value. "Brix value" is the refractometric sucrose value determined on the thawed concentrate in accordance with the refractometric method for sugars and sugar products. outlined in the "Official Methods of Analysis of the Association of Official Agricultural Chemists." and to which the applicable correction for acid is added:

means that the frozen peas possess a reasonably bright and reasonably uniform green color typical for the variety; that peas which very markedly from such typical green color do not materially affect the overall color appearance; and that not more than 11⁄2 percent, by count, of the peas may be blond, cream colored, or seriously detract from the overall color appearance.

(c) (C) Classification. Frozen peas that possess a fairly good color may be given a score of 14 or 15 points. Frozen Deas that fall into this classification shall not be graded above U.S. Grade B, regardless of the total score for the product (this is a partial limiting rule). "Fairly good color" means that the frozen peas possess a fairly uniform green color typical for the variety, which may be dull but not off color; that peas which vary markedly from such typical green color do not seriously affect the overall color appearance; and that not more than 2 percent, by count, of all the peas may be blond, cream colored, or seriously detract from the overall color appearance.

(d) (SStd.) classification. Frozen peas that fail to meet the requirements of paragraph (c) of this section may be given a score of 0 to 13 points and shall not be graded above Substandard, regardless of the total score for the product (this is a limiting rule).

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(1) Group 1; flat material. Succulent vegetable material common to the pea plant, such as leaves and pea pods;

(ii) Group 2; spherical material.

Non-deleterious or non-poisonous types of nightshade berries, thistle buds, or other similar spherical vegetable material from other plants similar in color to frozen peas;

(1) Group 3; cylindrical material. Cylindrical vegetable material, such as stems, common to the pea plant or from other plants which are similar in color to frozen peas.

(2) "Pieces of pea" (broken pea) means: (1) A whole pea from which a cotyledon or a large portion thereof has become separated;

(11) Two detached whole cotyledons; (iii) Pieces of cotyledon aggregating the equivalent of an average size cotyledon;

(iv) A whole detached skin or portions of detached skin aggregating the equivalent of an average size whole skin.

(3) "Blemished pea" means a pea that is blemished by discoloration or by other means that does not materially affect the appearance or eating quality of the pea.

(4) "Seriously blemished pea” means a pea that is hard, shriveled, spotted, discolored, or otherwise blemished to an extent that the appearance or eating quality is seriously affected. Peas commonly referred to as "blond" or "cream colored" peas are not considered seriously blemished peas.

(c) Determination of allowances(1) Determining percent, by count, of pieces of peas. (1) The percent, by count, of pieces of peas is determined by dividing the total number of pieces of peas by the total number of peas and pieces of peas.

(1) A pea held together by its skin. even though the cotyledons are partly crushed or the skin split, is not considered as a broken pea or piece of pea.

extraneous (2) Harmless vegetable material. (1) The allowances for harmless extraneous vegetable material are based on 30 ounces of frozen peas. When considering sample units of less than 30 ounces, the allowances provided in this section for the respective grade classifcation will be permitted in a single sample unit: Provided, That the average of such defects in the entire sample does not exceed such allowance.

(d) (A) classification. Frozen peas that are practically free from defects may be given a score of 36 to 40 points. "Practically free from defects" means that: (See Table I of this subpart)

(1) For each 30 ounces of net weight there may be present not more than the following amounts of harmless extraneous vegetable material:

(1) Group 1; flat material, pieces having an aggregate area of not more than 14 square inch (equivalent to 1⁄2 inch x 1⁄2 inch) on the surface; or 1 piece of any size; or

that

similar varietal characteristics; possess a good flavor; that possess a good color; that are practically free from defects; that are tender; and for those factors which are rated in accordance with the scoring system outlined in this subpart the total score is not less than 90 points: Provided, That the frozen peas may possess a reasonably good color, scoring not less than 17 points and may be only reasonably free from defects with respect to pieces of peas if the total score is not less than 90 points.

(b) "U.S. Grade B" (or "U.S. Extra Standard") is the quality of frozen peas that possess similar varietal characteristics; that possess a fairly good flavor; that possess a reasonably good color; that are reasonably free from defects; that are reasonably tender; and for those factors which are rated in accordance with the scoring system outlined in this subpart the total score is not less than 80 points: Provided, That the frozen peas may possess a fairly good color and may be fairly free from defects with respect to pieces of peas if the total score is not less than 80 points.

(c) "U.S. Grade C" (or "U.S. Standard") is the quality of frozen peas that possess similar varietal characteristics; that possess a fairly good flavor; that possess a fairly good color; that are fairly free from defects; that are fairly tender; and that for those factors which are scored in accordance with the scoring system outlined in this subpart the total score is not less than 70 points: Provided, That the frozen peas may fail to meet the requirements of this paragraph for defects with respect to pieces of peas if the total score is not less than 70 points.

(d) "Substandard" is the quality of frozen peas that fail to meet the requirements of U.S. Grade C.

FACTORS OF QUALITY

$ 52.3513 Ascertaining the grade.

(a) General. In addition to considering other requirements outlined in the standards the following quality factors are evaluated in ascertaining the grade of the product:

(1) Factors not rated by score points. (1) Varietal characteristics.

(ii) Flavor.

(2) Factors rated by score points. The relative importance of each factor which is rated is expressed numerically on the scale of 100. The maximum number of points that may be given for each such factor is:

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(b) Evaluation of quality. Flavor and the factor of tenderness and maturity is determined after the product has reached room temperature and after cooking. The rating for the factors of color and defects and the evaluation of similar varietal characteristics are determined immediately after the product has reached room temperature or may be determined immediately after thawing so that the product is free from ice crystals.

(c) Definitions of requirements not rated by score points. (1) "Good flavor” means that the product has a good characteristic flavor and odor for the maturity and is free from objectionable flavors and objectionable odors of any kind.

(2) "Fairly good flavor" means that the product may be lacking in good flavor but is free from objectionable flavors and objectionable odors of any kind.

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(a) (A) Classification. Frozen peas that possess a good color may be given a score of 18 to 20 points. "Good color" means that the frozen peas possess a bright, practically uniform, good, green color that is typical for the variety; that peas which vary markedly from such typical green color do not more than slightly affect the overall color appearance; and that not more than one-half of i percent, by count, of the peas may be blond, cream colored, or seriously detract from the overall color appearance.

(b) (B) classification. If the frozen peas possess a reasonably good color, a score of 16 or 17 points may be given. Frozen peas that score 16 points in this classification shall not be graded above U.S. Grade B, regardless of the total score for the product (this is a partial limiting rule). "Reasonably good color"

means that the frozen peas possess a reasonably bright and reasonably uniform green color typical for the variety; that peas which very markedly from such typical green color do not materially affect the overall color appearance; and that not more than 12 percent, by count, of the peas may be blond, cream colored, or seriously detract from the overall color appearance.

(c) (C) Classification. Frozen peas that possess a fairly good color may be given a score of 14 or 15 points. Frozen Deas that fall into this classification shall not be graded above U.S. Grade B, regardless of the total score for the product (this is a partial limiting rule). "Fairly good color" means that the frozen peas possess a fairly uniform green color typical for the variety, which may be dull but not off color; that peas which vary markedly from such typical green color do not seriously affect the overall color appearance; and that not more than 2 percent, by count, of all the peas may be blond, cream colored, or seriously detract from the overall color appearance.

(d) (SStd.) classification. Frozen peas that fail to meet the requirements of paragraph (c) of this section may be given a score of 0 to 13 points and shall not be graded above Substandard, regardless of the total score for the product (this is a limiting rule).

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(a) General. The factor of defects refers to the degree of freedom from harmless extraneous vegetable material, pieces of peas, blemished peas, seriously blemished peas, and other defects which affect the appearance or eating quality of the product.

(b) Definition of defects. (1) "Harmless extraneous vegetable material" means:

(1) Group 1; flat material. Succulent vegetable material common to the pea plant, such as leaves and pea pods;

(ii) Group 2; spherical material. Non-deleterious or non-poisonous types of nightshade berries, thistle buds, or other similar spherical vegetable material from other plants similar in color to frozen peas;

(1) Group 3; cylindrical material. Cylindrical vegetable material, such as stems, common to the pea plant or from other plants which are similar in color to frozen peas.

(2) "Pieces of pea" (broken pes) means: (i) A whole pea from which & cotyledon or a large portion thereof has become separated;

(11) Two detached whole cotyledons; (iii) Pieces of cotyledon aggregating the equivalent of an average size cotyledon;

(iv) A whole detached skin or portions of detached skin aggregating the equivalent of an average size whole skin.

(3) "Blemished pea" means a pea that is blemished by discoloration or by other means that does not materially affect the appearance or eating quality of the pea.

(4) "Seriously blemished pea" means a pea that is hard, shriveled, spotted, discolored, or otherwise blemished to an extent that the appearance or eating quality is seriously affected. Peas commonly referred to as "blond" or "cream colored" peas are not considered seriously blemished peas.

(c) Determination of allowances(1) Determining percent, by count, of pieces of peas. (1) The percent, by count, of pieces of peas is determined by dividing the total number of pieces of peas by the total number of peas and pieces of peas.

(1) A pea held together by its skin. even though the cotyledons are partly crushed or the skin split, is not considered as a broken pea or piece of pea.

(2) Harmless extraneous vegetable material. (1) The allowances for harmless extraneous vegetable material are based on 30 ounces of frozen peas. When considering sample units of less than 30 ounces, the allowances provided in this section for the respective grade classification will be permitted in a single sample unit: Provided, That the average of such defects in the entire sample does not exceed such allowance.

(d) (A) classification. Frozen peas that are practically free from defects may be given a score of 36 to 40 points. "Practically free from defects" means that: (See Table I of this subpart)

(1) For each 30 ounces of net weight there may be present not more than the following amounts of harmless extraneous vegetable material:

(1) Group 1; flat material, pieces having an aggregate area of not more than 4 square inch (equivalent to 1⁄2 inch x 1⁄2 inch) on the surface; or 1 piece of any size; or

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