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(a) (A) classification. Canned tomatoes and okra that possess a good color may be given a score of 17 to 20 points. "Good color" means that the tomato ingredient possesses a reasonably good red color that is typical of reasonably well ripened tomatoes and that the okra possesses the color of young tender okra, which ingredients have been properly prepared and properly processed and meet the following additional requirements:

(1) Tomatoes. Not less than 50 percent, by weight, of the drained tomato ingredient possesses as much or more red than USDA Tomato Red Color Standard: Provided, That the color of not more than 10 percent, by weight, of the remaining portion of the drained tomato ingredient may be yellow and none is green in color.

(2) Okra. The outer surface of the okra pods or pieces of pods possesses a color that is typical of young tender okra.

(b) (C) classification. Canned tomatoes and okra that possess a fairly good color may be given a score of 14 to 16 points. Canned tomatoes and okra that fall into this classification shall not be graded above U. S. Grade C or U. S. Standard, regardless of the total score for the product (this is a limiting rule). "Fairly good color" means that the tomato ingredient possesses a fairly good red color typical of fairly well ripened tomatoes and that the okra possesses the color of reasonably tender okra, which ingredients have been properly prepared and properly processed.

(c) (SStd.) classification. Canned tomatoes and okra that fail to meet the requirements of paragraph (b) of this section may be given a score of 0 to 13 points and shall not be graded above Substandard, regardless of the total score for the product (this is a limiting rule).

§ 52.3428 Flavor.

(a) (A) classification. Canned tomatoes and okra that possess a good flavor may be given a score of 17 to 20 points. "Good flavor" means that the product has a characteristic flavor and odor typi

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cal of well ripened tomatoes and young tender okra.

(b) (C) classification. Canned tomatoes and okra that possess a fairly good flavor may be given a score of 14 to 16 points. Canned tomatoes and okra that fall into this classification shall not be graded above U. S. Grade C or U. S. Standard, regardless of the total score for the product (this is a limiting rule). "Fairly good flavor" means that the product may be lacking in good flavor and odor but is free from objectionable flavors and objectionable odors of any kind.

(c) (SStd.) classification. Canned tomatoes and okra that fail to meet the requirements of paragraph (b) of this section may be given a score of 0 to 13 points and shall not be graded above Substandard, regardless of the total score for the product (this is a limiting rule).

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(a) General. The factor of defects refers to the degree of freedom from sand, grit, or silt; harmless extraneous material; tomato peel; tomato core material; small pieces of okra; and from damaged or seriously damaged tomato or okra ingredient.

(1) "Sand, grit, or silt" means any particle of earthy material.

(2) "Harmless extraneous material" means any extraneous vegetable substance (including, but not limited to, a leaf, unattached stem, or portions thereof) that is harmless.

(3) "Damaged" means that the appearance and eating quality of the product is materially affected by the presence of scarred, discolored, or blemished tomato ingredient and/or scarred, poorly trimmed okra ingredient, and small pieces of pod less than % inch in length, or other damage.

(4) "Seriously damaged" means that the appearance and eating quality of the product is seriously affected by the presence of damaged ingredients.

(b) (A) classification. Canned tomatoes and okra that are practically free from defects may be given a score of 25 to 30 points. "Practically free from defects" means that the presence of sand, grit, or silt; harmless extraneous material; tomato peel; core material; and damaged and seriously damage ingredients, individually or collectively, does not materially affect the appearance and eating quality of the product.

(c) (C) classification. Canned tomatoes and okra that are fairly free from defects may be given a score of 21 to 24 points. Canned tomatoes and okra that fall into this classification shall not be graded above U. S. Grade C or U. S. Standard, regardless of the total score for the product (this is a limiting rule). "Fairly free from defects" means that the presence of sand, grit, or silt; harmless extraneous material; tomato peel; core material; and damaged and seriously damaged ingredients, individually or collectively, does not seriously affect the appearance and eating quality of the product.

Canned

(d) (SStd.) classification. tomatoes and okra that fail to meet the requirements of paragraph (c) of this section may be given a score of 0 to 20 points and shall not be graded above Substandard, regardless of the total score for the product (this is a limiting rule).

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(a) General. The factor of character refers to the texture and wholeness of the tomato ingredient and the tenderness and texture of the okra pods or pieces of pods.

(1) "Large piece of tomato ingredient" means a piece of tomato flesh that weighs not less than 1 ounce.

(2) "Small piece of tomato ingredient" means a piece of tomato flesh that weighs less than 1 ounce and that does not pass through a United States Standard 2-inch sieve.

(b) (A) classification. Canned tomatoes and okra that possess a good character may be given a score of 26 to 30 points. "Good character" means that the tomato ingredient is composed of whole, almost whole, or large pieces of tomato flesh and that the okra pods or pieces of pods are fleshy and tender and practically intact, that the okra seed is in the early stages of development, and that not more than 2 percent, by count, of the pods or pieces of pods may possess fibrous material which is materially objectionable upon eating.

(c) (C) classification. Canned tomatoes and okra that possess a fairly good character may be given a score of 21 to 25 points. Canned tomatoes and okra that fall into this classification on account of fibrous material shall not be graded above U. S. Grade C or U. S. Standard, regardless of the total score for the product (this is a partial limiting

rule). "Fairly good character" means that the tomato ingredient may be predominantly in small pieces and that the okra pods and pieces of pods may have lost to a considerable extent their fleshy texture, that the units may be fairly tender but not excessively mushy, that the seed may be in the later stages of maturity but are not hard, and that not more than 5 percent, by count, of the pods or pieces of pods may possess fibrous material which is materially objectionable upon eating.

(d) (SStd.) classification. Canned tomatoes and okra that fail to meet the requirements of paragraph (c) of this section with respect to fibrous material may be given a score of 0 to 20 points and shall not be graded above Substandard, regardless of the total score for the product (this is a partial limiting rule). LOT INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION § 52.3431

lot.

Ascertaining the grade of a

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Bulk or barreled sauerkraut, hereinafter referred to as "sauerkraut" or "bulk sauerkraut" is the product of characteristic acid flavor, obtained by the full fermentation, chiefly lactic, of properly prepared and shredded cabbage in the presence of not less than 2 percent nor more than 3 percent of salt. It contains, upon completion of the fermentation, not less than 1.5 percent of acid, expressed as lactic acid.

§ 52.3452 Grades of bulk sauerkraut.

(a) "U.S. Grade A (First Quality)" bulk sauerkraut is of a color approximating, or is lighter than "Olive Buff" (according to Ridgway's "Color Standards and Nomenclature"), with the shreds uniformly cut to approximately 2-inch in thickness. The product is practically free from defects and blemishes; is of fine, crisp texture; possesses a normal, well developed, sauerkraut flavor; and scores not less than 85 points when scored according to the scoring system outlined herein.

(b) "U.S. Grade C (Second Quality)" bulk sauerkraut may have a variable straw color, but not darker than "Dark Olive Buff" (according to Ridgway's "Color Standards and Nomenclature"); the shreds may lack uniformity of thickness. The product is reasonably free from defects and blemishes; is of reasonably fine, crisp texture; possesses a normal sauerkraut flavor; and scores not less than 70 points and need not score more than 84 points when scored according to the scoring system outlined herein.

(c) "Substandard" bulk sauerkraut is sauerkraut that fails to meet the requirements of the foregoing grades or when any one of the grading factors falls in the (D) classification.

FACTORS OF QUALITY

§ 52.3453 Ascertaining the grade.

The grade of bulk sauerkraut may be ascertained by considering, in addition to the requirements in the definition, the

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§ 52.3454 Ascertaining the rating of each factor.

The essential variations within each factor are so described that the value may be ascertained for each factor and expressed numerically. The numerical ranges within each factor are inclusive. For instance, the range 13 to 15 means 13, 14, and 15.

§ 52.3455 Color.

(a) (A) classification. Sauerkraut that possesses a color approximating, or is lighter than "Olive Buff" (according to Ridgway's "Color Standards and Nomenclature"), may be given a credit of 13 to 15 points.

(b) (C) classification. If the sauerkraut possesses a color ranging from "Olive Buff" to (but not darker than) "Dark Olive Buff", or is slightly greenish or yellowish, or possesses a tint of light brown, a credit of 10 to 12 points may be allowed. Sauerkraut that falls in this classification shall not be graded above U.S. Grade C (Second Quality), regardless of the total score for the product.

(c) (D) classification. If the sauerkraut possesses a decidedly dark, or pink tinted color, a credit within the range of zero to nine points may be allowed. § 52.3456

Cut.

(a) (A) classification. If the shreds of sauerkraut are uniformly cut to approximately 32-inch in thickness and are of a reasonable length, a credit of 13 to 15 points may be allowed.

(b) (C) classification. If the cut is very irregular, the shreds being "choppy" and poorly cut, a credit of 10 to 12 points may be allowed. Sauerkraut that falls in this classification may not be graded

above U.S. Grade C (Second Quality), regardless of the total score for the product.

(c) (D) classification. Sauerkraut that is very uneven in cut, containing decidedly thick or short shreds, may be given a credit of not more than nine points.

§ 52.3457 Absence of defects.

(a) General. The factor of absence of defects refers to defects such as large pieces of leaves, dead leaves, large pieces of core, spotted shreds, or other defects.

(b) (A) classification. Sauerkraut that is practically free from the defects mentioned may be given a credit of nine to 10 points.

(c) (C) classification. If the product is reasonably free from the defects mentioned, a credit of six to eight points may be allowed. Sauerkraut that falls in this classification shall not be graded above U.S. Grade C (Second Quality), regardless of the total score for the product.

(d) (D) classification. If pieces of dead leaves, large pieces of core, spotted shreds, or any similar blemishes are prominently present to the extent of injuring the appearance of the product, a credit within the range of zero to five points may be allowed.

§ 52.3458 Texture.

(a) General. The factor of texture refers to the condition of the product and the tendency of the shreds to be firm, fresh, crisp, and easy to cut, as contradistinguished to soft or mushy.

(b) (A) classification. Sauerkraut that is firm and crisp may be given a credit of 13 to 15 points.

(c) (C) classification. If the product is somewhat tough, or is slightly soft, a credit of 10 to 12 points may be allowed. Sauerkraut that falls in this classification shall not be graded above U.S. Grade C (Second Quality), regardless of the total score for the product.

(d) (D) classification. If the sauerkraut is tough, or contrariwise, is soft and mushy, a credit within the range of zero to nine points may be allowed. § 52.3459

Flavor.

(a) (A) classification. Sauerkraut that has a highly acid (expressed as lactic), palatable, clean, characteristic sauer

kraut flavor, may be given a credit of 40 to 45 points.

(b) (C) classification. If the product possesses a good sauerkraut flavor that may be suggestive of improper bacterial action, but not markedly so, it may be given a credit of 34 to 39 points. Sauerkraut that falls in this classification shall not be graded above U.S. Grade C (Second Quality), regardless of the total score for the product.

(c) (D) classification. If the flavor is poor and unpalatable from any cause (acetic, butyric, yeasty, moldy, very salty, bitter stale, or rancid), a credit within the range of zero to 33 points may be allowed.

METHODS OF ANALYSIS

§ 52.3460 Determination of acidity.

The method of titration used to determine the degree of lactic acidity in sauerkraut is as follows: Place 10 cc. of sauerkraut juice in a flask, add 40 cc. of distilled water (hydrant water contains large quantities of alkaline salts which tend to neutralize the sauerkraut acid before titration takes place). Shake the flask to mix thoroughly the sauerkraut juice and water. Add three or four drops of phenolphthalein solution. Into this mixture slowly run, drop by drop, from a burette graduated in 10 cc. and filled with normal solution of sodium hydroxide, enough of the sodium hydroxide to bring a permanent pink tint to the sauerkraut juice solution, shaking the flask as the sodium hydroxide is added. As soon as the pink tint becomes permanent (at first it will fade away), note the amount of the hydroxide used, divide this number by 10, and the result is a number which is the percentage of lactic acid in the sauerkraut juice.

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Grade...-

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1 Sauerkraut that falls in this classification may not be graded above U.S. Grade C (Second Quality).

Sauerkraut that falls in this classification may not be graded above Substandard.

Subpart-United States Standards for Grades of Concentrated Grapefruit Juice for Manufacturing

SOURCE: $ 52.3481 to 52.8491 appear at 22 FR. 1799, Mar. 20, 1957, unless otherwise noted.

PRODUCT DESCRIPTION AND GRADES § 52.3481 Product description.

"Concentrated grapefruit juice for manufacturing" is the concentrated product obtained from sound, mature grapefruit (Citrus paradisi). The fruit is prepared by sorting and by washing prior to extraction of the juice and the extracted juice is concentrated. The concentrated grapefruit juice is processed in accordance with good commercial practice; and may or may not require processing by heat, subsequent refrigeration, or freezing to assure preservation of the product but is not the product known as "frozen concentrated grapefruit juice." The finished product does not contain any additives except that cold-pressed oil to standardize flavor and chemical preservatives permissible under provisions of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act may have been added.

Degrees

Degrees

37.5

40.1

45.5

48.3

52.7

56.0

59.6

63.2

(b) Concentrated grapefruit juice for manufacturing of other dilution factors than "1 plus 3" to "1 plus 6," as indicated in paragraph (a) of this section, shall result in a Brix (upon reconstitution as prescribed by the processor or as prescribed by the label on the container, if labeled) of not less than 10.5 degrees.

§ 52.3482

Grades of concentrated grapefruit juice for manufacturing. (a) "U.S. Grade A for Manufacturing" or "U.S. Fancy for Manufacturing" is the quality of concentrated grapefruit juice which shows no material gelation, reconstitutes properly, and of which the reconstituted juice possesses a reasonably good color; is practically free from defects; possesses a reasonably good flavor; and scores not less than 85 points when scored in accordance with the scoring system outlined in this subpart.

(b) "U. S. Grade C for Manufacturing" or "U. S. Standard for Manufacturing" is the quality of concentrated grapefruit juice which shows no serious gelation, reconstitutes properly, and of which the reconstituted juice possesses a fairly good color; is fairly free from defects; possesses a fairly good flavor; and scores not less than 70 points when scored in accordance with the scoring system outlined in this subpart.

(c) "Substandard for Manufacturing" is the quality of concentrated grapefruit juice that fails to meet the requirements of U. S. Grade C for Manufacturing or U. S. Standard for Manufacturing.

FILL OF CONTAINER

§ 52.3483 Recommended fill of con

tainer.

The recommended fill of container is not incorporated in the grades of the

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