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Figure 2. Comparison between observed global average climate change since 1865 with a climate model simulation using CO 2 and tropospheric aerosol changes of the IS92a IPCC scenario (Haywood et al., 1997).

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Figure 3. Haywood et al. (1997) climate simulations from Figures 1 and 2, including predictions into the next century. Curves are smoothed with a 3-year running mean.

Curriculum Vitae of Alan Robock

I earned a Ph.D. in Meteorology at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1977. Since then I have been on the faculty of the Department of Meteorology of the University of Maryland, where I am now a Professor and the State Climatologist of Maryland. My research involves many aspects of climate change, including the greenhouse effect, impacts of climate change and satellite observations. I have published more than 125 articles on my research, more than half of these in the peer-reviewed literature. I conduct both observational analyses and climate model simulations.

I have published papers on the creation of regional climate change scenarios for impact analysis (Robock, 1993) and on the effects of climate change on com production in Venezuela (Maytin et al., 1996). I recently co-authored a paper (Vinnikov et al., 1996) which showed that the cooling of the stratosphere which has been observed during the past 30 years has a very small chance of having happened due to natural climate fluctuations, and is most likely a signal of human impacts on the climate.

I am a member of the American Meteorological Society, the American Geophysical Union, and the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). I serve on the Scientific Advisory Board of the National Institute for Global Environmental Change, Great Plains Regional Center, at the University of Nebraska in Lincoln, and have since its inception in 1992. This center is funded by DOE. I am the Associate Editor for Meteorology of Reviews of Geophysics. I serve on the International Climate Commission of the International Association for Meteorology and Atmospheric Science and the American Meteorological Society Committee on Climate Variations. I was awarded a AAAS Congressional Science Fellowship in 1986, and served as Legislative Assistant to Congressman Bill Green (R-NY) and as a Research Fellow with the Environmental and Energy Study Conference from September, 1986, through August, 1987, where I authored the report The Greenhouse Effect: Global Warming Raises Fundamental Issues. During the 199495 academic year I was a Visiting Research Scientist at Princeton University in the Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences Program, conducting climate research at NOAA's Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory.

I am a contributing author to 4 of the 11 chapters of the most recent IPCC 1995 Working Group I report, including Chapter 8, "Detection of Climate Change and Attribution of Causes." The work I did in contributing information to these chapters, and in reviewing these and other chapters, was done as a volunteer, at night and in my spare time, with no compensation. I currently have grants from the National Science Foundation, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) that support my scientific research. The views expressed here are my own and do not represent those of any organization or funding agency.


Maytín, Carlos E., Miguel Acevedo, Ramón Jaimez, Rigoberto Andressen, Mark A. Harwell, Alan Robock, and Aura Azócar, 1995: Potential effects of global climatic change on the phenology and yield of maize in Venezuela. Climatic Change, 29, 189-211.

Robock, Alan, Richard P. Turco, Mark A. Harwell, Thomas P. Ackerman, Rigoberto Andressen, Hsin-shih Chang and M. V. K. Sivakumar, 1993: Use of general circulation model output in the creation of climate change scenarios for impact analysis. Climatic Change, 23, 293-335.

Vinnikov, Konstantin Ya., Alan Robock, Ronald J. Stouffer, and Syukuro Manabe, 1996: Vertical patterns of free and forced climate variations. Geophys. Res. Lett., 23, 1801-1804.

Sources of Federal Government Funding for Alan Robock

During the current and two preceding fiscal years (October 1, 1995 - present) I have conducted research supported by portions of the following federal research grants. These grants paid for 25% of my salary, 100% of the salary of a Senior Research Scientist working with me, about 80% of the salary of an Associate Research Scientist working with me, 100% of the tuition and salary of about 4 Ph.D. students per year working with me, computer equipment, software, supplies, scientific data, travel to professional conferences, page fees for publishing journal articles, and office expenses of conducting research, such as telephones, faxes, and copying.

1. NASA, NAG 5-1835, "Climate Model Calculations of The Effects of Volcanoes on Global Climate," December 1, 1991 - November 30, 1996, $439,000.

2. DOE Office of Energy Research, DE-FG02-93ER61691.A000, "Validation of Soil Moisture in GCMs - AMIP Diagnostic Subproject 11," September 1, 1993 - August 31, 1997, $148,500.

3. NOAA Climate and Global Change Program, NA56GPO212, "Midlatitude Land Surface Processes: Modeling and Analysis in Support of GCIP Using American, Russian, and Chinese Data," May 1, 1995 - April 30, 1998, $385,000.

4. NSF Climate Dynamics Program, ATM-9528201, "Climatic Effects of Volcanic Eruptions," March 1, 1996 - February 28, 1999, $165,000.

5. NASA, NAGW-4912, NAG53739, "Climatic Effects of Volcanic Eruptions," December 1, 1995 - February 28, 1999, $165,000.

6. NOAA Climate and Global Change Program, NA66GPO438, "Limits of Natural Variations in Global and Regional Climate as Compared to observed Climatic Trends," July 1, 1996 - June 30, 1998, $150,000.

7. DOE Great Plains National Institute for Global Environmental Change, "The Diurnal Cycle over the Great Plains in the Future: Mechanisms and Spatial Distribution," July 1, 1996 - June 30, 1999, $215,000.

8. NASA Mission to Planet Earth, NAGW5227, "Global Soil Moisture Data Set From Satellite and Gravimetric Observations for Climatic Studies and Evaluation of the Hydrological Aspects of Climate Models," July 1, 1996 - June 30, 1998, $197,300.

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