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wage before injury; and secondly, to the Brewers in the waste caused by the substitution of inexperienced and green men in the place of the injured. Human nature is the same the world over. We are all quick to attribute an accident to others as hard luck, misfortune, etc. Very rarely do we apply the lessons so often horribly taught us to our own habits of life. Safeguards on machinery prevent not more than 25 per cent. of the accidents. The only positive safeguard known is the human mind-alert and careful of danger.
To illustrate briefly, some time ago, a man in Massachusetts worked in a planing mill. He received satisfactory wages and supported a comfortable, happy home. His son attended school, and his wife enjoyed all the comforts of that little home. In a moment of carelessness, the man's hand was caught in the planer, and as a result he lost a hand. That little home was immediately transformed. The mother was obliged to go out to work for others; her son was taken from school and put to work, and the father was forced to the street, selling lead pencils.
All this was told one night at a meeting for the purpose of preventing accidents. In the audience sat a man, his wife and boy. They were naturally interested in the story; the father, because he too worked in a planing mill, doing work similar to that done by the injured man. On the way home the mother stopped on the sidewalk and said, "Jolin, you do the same work that that poor man did, don't you?” Receiving a reply that he did, she said, “John, you see to it that you never cause me to go out working like that poor woman in the lecture." That woman did more safety work from that moment than all the lectures or pictures in the world could possibly do. Every day that man worked, the words of his wife were constantly on his mind. It is certain that he will never be caught in a planer and have his little home ruined.
That is a lesson the New York Brewers would have their seven thousand employees learn by personal application. When they learn it there will be very few accidents.
The Brewers have created this Insurance Company to endure. Not one employee has been subjected to a physical examination; not one has been discharged for any physical disability or infirmity. None will be. The New York Brewers pride themselves on being above such practices when the object is to weed out the weak from the strong. They make no distinction in the hiring of men as to
whether they are single or married. Knowing that the strength of the country is in the home, they are glad to give work to married men. Everything that can possibly be done by them for the benefit of their workmen, whether in health or in illness, will be done. All that they ask in return from their aworkmen is a square deal, and, judging from their experience in the past, they have every reason to believe that their employees will give it.
Twenty-four States have enacted Workmen's Compensation Laws of one kind or other, and their number will doubtless increase until the entire country will have been covered. Brewers in states where the law is of such form as to permit the organization of mutual indemnity systems would do well to study the particular system here described. Further information may be had upon application to the Labor Committee.
Louis B. SCHRAM, Chairman C. W. FEIGENSPAN
C. NORMAN JONES
Hugh F. Fox, Secretary
REPORT OF THE CROP IMPROVEMENT COMMITTEE
The activities and influence of the Crop Improvement Committee can scarcely be expressed in a limited report.
The plans of this Committee have received the unqualified endorsement of the government, of all of the agricultural colleges in all of the states and of Farmers' and Business Men's Associations throughout the length and breadth of the United States.
The most interesting and important function of this Committee has been the encouragement and establishment of the County Farm Bureau, in charge of a paid agriculturist, and backed by a strong local association of farmers and business men.
The number of these County Associations has been doubled during the year, and there are now 315 counties operating under this plan. This does not take into consideration the part in the South operating under a similar plan.
The secondary plan of the Committee has been to establish a seed center in each country of the United States, the object of which is:
First. To determine and decide upon the variety of barley and other grain best adapted to soil and climate, and which has the best market value.
Second. To so fan and grade the seed barley that trash and weed seeds and inferior seeds may be eliminated before sowing.
Third. The treatment of smut and stem diseases of grain by concerted effort throughout each neighborhood.
Fourth. To ascertain the viability of making germination tests and systematic seed surveys in every county through the children of the public schools.
Fifth. The publication and dissemination of timely barley posters and bulletins and various other publications.
Sixth. To encourage a permanent system of agriculture by a proper rotation and by the proper use of fertilizers.
The Committee has arranged and distributed throughout the year a Crop Improvement program for the use of farmers' clubs, granges, institutes, grain schools and conventions, which have been held and are now being held in every State.
The plans of the Wisconsin Experiment Association, of establishing a county order or branch in every county for the breeding of pedigreed varieties, have been introduced with success in Minnesota, North Dakota, South Dakota, Iowa, Michigan, which are the most important barley States, and are being rapidly perfected in Kansas, Missouri, Illinois and other States.
The funds supplied by this Association have enabled the Committee to employ a scientific agronomist who has performed excellent service during the year. It is also our purpose to add a field agronomist who will go from county to county establishing seed centers.
We respectfully request the Brewers' Convention to agree upon an "official” variety of barley for each State to adopt as its standard. In Wisconsin, we recommend pedigreed Oberbrucker, in Minnesota No. 105. Iowa, North Dakota, South Dakota standards to be fixed by resolution after conference of the Committee with state agronomists.
The details of this work will be fully set forth in the exhibit of grains and in the illustrated report submitted by the Secretary.
MR. H. D. STUHR'S ADDRESS Mr. President and Members of the United States Brewers'
Association: My subject is: WHY FEDERAL INSPECTION AND GRADING WILL BE AN INCENTIVE TO BETTER AND MORE PROFITABLE BARLEY RAISING AND MARKETING
I propose to show that the interests of the brewers and the farmers are mutual and identical in the standardization of barley. Whether you buy your malt, or make it, your interest is the same. Remember that if only 20 per cent. of the barley that is grown is of choice malting quality, 80 per cent. of the malt will be of inferior quality.
BARLEY BUYING FROM FARMERS AT COUNTRY ELEVATORS
DONE BY SAMPLE
In the three principal Northwestern barley raising states the farmers sell their barley to the country elevators on grade values that are established arbitrarily by the buyers. These three states
. produced approximately one hundred million bushels of barley in 1912, most of which was graded as feed barley at the primary points, but was turned out as fine malting barley at the Terminal Barley Markets and the Transit Cleaning Houses.
HOW TO INTEREST THE FARMER
The farmer can only be induced to raise better grain by the certainty that he can sell it at a premium. Under the present irregular inspection and grading methods there is little or no inducement for him to improve the quality. Remember that barley above all other grains is the most unpleasant to raise, harvest and thrash, and is the most undesirable grain to market. Naturally, farmers are going to raise and market the kind of grain that is most easily produced and handled, and which will give them the best returns with the least possible trouble. They will not raise barley except for feeding purposes unless they can get a price for it that is above feed values. With the increased demand for live stock, and the consequent advance in prices, the use of barley for feed purposes will increase, and the barley farmer will be more and more independent of the maltster.
FINE GRAIN EXHIBITS AND THE ACTUAL MARKET DELIVERIES
I have seen many fine grain exhibits. I appreciate them to the fullest extent, for they are instructive and every time I see one I wish that there were more actual market deliveries like it; but so far as barley is concerned but a very small percentage marketed on each crop equalled the grades exhibited. I attribute this mainly to the irregular and loose inspection and grading system which is in effect. It would be an incentive to better and more profitable barley raising if the farmers could get their barley honestly graded and prices based on such grading.
THE FARMERS WILL CONTINUE TO RAISE BARLEY, PROVIDED
You can rest assured farmers as a whole will continue to raise barley for malting purposes, provided there is any money in it, but if they can't get a higher grade and a better price for choice malting barley than other farmers are getting for much lower or strictly feed barley, and their choice barley is used to mix and blend to raise the lower at the expense of the higher grades, you need not look for any improvement. However, federal inspection and grading will be a step in the right direction, and will do much towards accomplishing better and more profitable grain raising. Standardized grades will soon eliminate the general mixing and blending business, for the consumers will purchase subject to federal grade certification.
INSPECTION AND GRADING OF BARLEY IN LEADING MARKET 1912 CROP
I want to give you just a little brief information how the inspection and grading averaged up on the total barley receipts during the 1912 "bumper” crop season in one of the largest and very best terminal barley markets. The 1912 inspection and grading in percentage was as follows:
No. 1-None. No. 2-None. No. 3—181%. No. 4- 465%. Rejected-12%. Feed- of 1%. Sample grade -21%. Chevalier and Bay Brewing-} of 1%.
The 1913 crop season averages up no better. This certainly is a very poor showing for improved barley raising and marketing.
THE IRREGULAR GRADING SYSTEM
has created a prejudice in the minds of the farmers, many of whom believe that the brewers are responsible for existing conditions ; whereas the brewers have done their utmost to promote crop improvement at their own expense. Of course, the legitimate supply and demand should and will regulate prices, provided the system of grading is fair, and the marketing conditions become normal. Under federal supervision the manipulation of the grades will be checked, and I am sure that the farmers will welcome federal in