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to State Governments and municipalities, together with the capital and labor which are involved, and the direct relation of our industry to the commerce and agriculture of the country, and to transportation interests. The complete report is published in our present YEAR Book. It shows that the direct cost of National Prohibition would be simply stupendous. When in addition to this, it is considered that under National Prohibition the nation would have to police its frontier and its entire coast line to prevent wholesale smuggling, and that nothing short of a national constabulary would check illicit distilling in all the sequestered places, the question arises whether the police power of the nation, and of the states, would not break down utterly under such a strain ?

We have compiled from the Congressional Record an analysis of the petitions sent to Congress, both for and against the prohibition bills of Mr. Hobson, Mr. Works and Mr. Sheppard. Our research covers the period from December 1, 1913, to August 1, 1914. A total of 10,508 petitions were submitted in favor of the bills, and 8,150 against them; but the petitions in favor of the bills only represent a total of 705,714 signatures as compared with 883,201 in the bills opposing the measures.

The strongest forces arrayed on the side of the bills were the members of the Methodist and Baptists Churches, the Women's Christian Temperance Union, the Epworth League and the AntiSaloon League. There were only two Labor Unions petitioning in favor of the Acts, while 422 Labor Unions passed resolutions and sent their petitions against prohibition, exclusive of the Unions in the distilling and brewing industries. These together with the bartenders' unions totaled 223, or more than one-half as many as the Unions not directly interested in the manufacture and sale of liquors and beer. Of the business houses not interested in the industry, 23 favored the bills and 1,306 were opposed to any prohibitive legislation, 514 business houses, directly interested, sent protests. Of the Boards of Trade, Chambers of Commerce, and other civic leagues, 30 favored the bills and 154 opposed them. Of benevolent and fraternal orders, 16 favored the bills and 88 sent protests against them. The petitions of protest against prohibition were, with very few exceptions, carefully prepared, and the full name, address and occupation given, so that the signatures could be verified readily. The value of the signatures to the petitions which were sent in by the prohibitionists is open to serious doubt. Men,

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women and children appear to have signed some of them indiscriminately, while others are "omnibus" affairs, submitted by a minister on behalf of his entire congregation! Congressman Bartholdt, of Missouri, in referring to a petition of 25,533 citizens of St. Louis, favoring prohibition, said: "On investigating this petition, neither my colleague, Mr. Dyer, nor his clerk, knew anything about it nor had the petition clerk of the House any record of it. The petition could not be found. I was informed later on that it had been found. It was described to me as a single piece of paper on which was written 25,533 citizens of St. Louis petition for national prohibition,' but in spite of a number of requests I have never been able to see it. The question arises, if this petition did not come from St. Louis, where did it come from, and who is responsible for its presentation in this House? It looks as if this were a spurious petition, and that we have to deal here with some sort of imposition upon the House to manufacture sentiment in favor of the proposition now pending. In this connection, permit me to call attention to the character of these petitions daily filed in favor of prohibition. They evidently have all been printed on the same press. They have been sent out by an organized body of men to all the clergymen of the United States, and these gentlemen take it upon themselves to sign them in behalf, not only of themselves, but in behalf of all the membership of their organizations. In other words, a clergyman would certify that such and such a church of 3,000 or 4,000 members prays for the enactment of prohibition; but when you come to ask any of these 3,000 or 4,000 members whether they knew anything about it, whether they are in favor of prohibition or not, you will find that they are ignorant of it, and have not approved of it. In this case the Church is trying to govern and rule and control the State. A clergyman is within his rights as a citizen when he petitions for himself, but not when he certifies for his congregation, unless he positively knows that they are all of one mind with him.”

The point should be emphasized that the signatures in opposition to the bills can all be verified, and that they represent in large part the most substantial people in the community, who have no connection with the liquor traffic.

COMMUNITY WELFARE WORK OF OUR MEMBERS

The investigation conducted by our Association which had for its object the cataloging of the various public welfare activities of

our members, brought forth a most ready response. It has always been known that our members were public-spirited men, interested in the good of their respective communities as a whole, as well as in their individual enterprises, but the tabulation of these activities substantiates this to an amazing degree. Our Western members particularly, appear to have taken a most active interest in the upbuilding of those towns and cities where they have chosen to make their homes, and to lay the foundations of their fortunes. Thus we find their names enrolled as members of the Chambers of Commerce of their home cities, their service while without pay is not without honor; one of our members has been President of his village for seven terms, while another is now serving his third term as Mayor of his city, while several have held the office of Mayor for one or two terms. All sorts of public works have engaged the interest and time of our members. They are listed as members of Park Boards, chiefs of fire departments, city treasurers, directors of boards of public works, directors of business associations, members of the city council, members of public service commissions, which have to do with the betterment of such public service matters as transit facilities, traffic conditions, etc., members of sanitary and reclamation commissions, and so on. But not only have they taken their places as champions of "things as they are," but also of things as they ought to be. Thus we find that one of our members is on the Planning Committee for the great city of Chicago, another a member of the City Plan Commission of St. Louis, while others have taken upon themselves the arduous duties exacted by membership in Charter Revision Commissions, and one of our members has been honored by the Governor of his State with an appointment as member of the "Capitol Commission,” which has the supervision of the building of an eight million dollar capitol building for his home State. Several of our members have served their states in the Legislature.

That men successful in their private business should be of service in the larger business of their communities is quite natural, but it is noteworthy that our members have also taken an active part in various charitable and philanthropic enterprises. It would be tedious to enumerate the hospitals that have the advice and support of the brewers throughout the country. Charitable Aid Societies, Philanthropic Homes, State and City Hospitals, Orphan Asylums, Children's Homes, etc., claim our members as directors and trustees. The latch string is always out for all institutions of this character, even though our members are not always able to give their time to serve on the governing boards.

The interests of our members are most varied. The educational features of their home towns claim their attention as trustees of school boards and public libraries; while many of our members are in the official councils of their respective churches, as well as other religious societies. These activities, however, have not prevented them from having other intellectual interests. By contributions and personal endeavors they have assisted the musical associations in their cities, have aided art leagues and similar organizations.

In view of conditions abroad it is interesting to note that several of our members are in the National Guard of their states, in the Volunteer Militias, etc.

All these things are not a matter of simple accounting, and it would indeed be foolish to attempt to present in any tabular form the interests which engage the time, money and minds of our members outside of our great industry itself. The questionnaire which we sent out only confirms the prevalent idea as to the public spirit of the brewer, and his willingness to do all he can for the promotion not only of his own calling, but all the various activities which go to make a great people.”

SALOON BETTERMENT

The movement for saloon betterment has made great progress during the past year within the trade itself. Both the National and the State Retail Liquor Dealers' Associations are insisting upon the proper conduct of the saloons.

In Pennsylvania the brewers, wholesalers and retailers have together organized a number of County Associations for the express purpose of securing a strict adherence to all laws regulating the sale of liquors within the county, and "to bring about the conduct of the business in such a manner as to gain the esteem and confidence of all law abiding citizens.” These county associations employ a special officer who pays regular visits to all licensed places, to see that they are properly conducted. Among other things they have a Complaint Committee of attorneys and other prominent citizens who are not connected with the business, and whose duty it is to receive and investigate complaints which may be made either by members of the Association or by citizens. The Complaint Committee acts as a

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disciplinary body. If the complaint is justified they give the offender a short time to clean up the business, during which time he is on probation subject to good behavior; or try to induce him to sell out. If this does not work, or if the offense is repeated, the Complaint Committee brings the matter officially before the Licensing Judge.

At the recent annual meeting of the Connecticut Liquor Dealers' Association, the following resolution was adopted:

"WHEREAS, it is the purpose of the organization to aid and assist in the enforcement of law and order, and

"WHEREAS, it is our purpose to have connected with the business only such persons as will observe in their strictest sense the laws enacted for the welfare of the entire commonwealth; therefore,

“BE IT RESOLVED, That we, the Connecticut Retail Wine, Liquor and Beer Dealers' Associatiun, in convention assembled, do hereby pledge our assistance and aid to the civil authorities of our State to the end that law and order may prevail, and

"BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED, That we deprecate the custom of granting licenses to persons who are not responsible in the community or who are not citizens and electors of the community in which said licenses are requested to be granted, and

"FURTHER BE IT RESOLVED, That we pledge our aid and assistance to the authorities in eliminating from the business person's who fail to observe the laws of the State, whether in respect to any conduct of theirs or in connection with the business itself, and

“FURTHER BE IT RESOLVED, That we do our utmost to prevent those not directly concerned in the retail business from placing in the retail business persons who have not substantial interest either financially or morally in said business.”

In Florida, the Mercantile Protective Association has taken the same stand, and has sent to all of the saloonkeepers a copy of the statement which the License Commission of Ohio issued, to the effect that the sanitary condition of their business places will count when the renewal of their licenses is under consideration.

In Galena, Ill., the Retail Liquor Dealers' Association made the following significant announcement after the town had recently voted wet :

“We, the members of the Retail Liquor Dealers' Association of Galena, Ill., hereby express our gratitude to the men and women voters of West Galena township who by their votes refused to confiscate our property and unjustly force us out of business.

"We are opposed to the intemperate use of intoxicants and sales to drunkards and minors, and will use every effort to enforce the laws applicable thereto.

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